The Mexican Wandering Garter Snake, first described as Thamnophis elegans errans by Hobart M. Smith in 1942, is now considered a separate species, T. errans. The timing of reproduction varies based on latitude and climate. They grow quickly, reproduce early in their lives, and produce more offspring. Geographic variation in the foraging behavior of the garter snake, Thamnophis elegans. Also known as Wandering Garter Snake. Rossi, John V. and Roxanne Rossi. Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. Note: These species pages are in various stages of completion. Disclaimer, privacy info. They prefer open fields, meadows and waterways. ... Western terrestrial garter snake (Thamnophis elegans). The subspecies of Western Terrestrial Garter Snake found in B.C. "An introduction to the natural history of North American garter snakes with basic triage practices" (On-line). You will mostly find a range of yellow or white stripe on the back of western terrestrial garter snakes with one stripe of the same color on both sides. active during the day, 2. lasting for one day. Multiple paternity in the western terrestrial garter snake, Thamnophis elegans. Dark-coloured populations from the Puget Sound area, once classified as Thamnophis elegans nigrescens Johnson, 1947, are now considered T. e. vagrans. They have 8 upper labial scales that border the mouth, and 10 lower labial scales along the jaw. Three subspecies are currently recognized. November 05, 2013 2009. Journal of Animal Ecology, 78.6: 1242-1248. Sparkman, A., A. Bronikowski, J. Billings, D. Von Borstel, S. Arnold. Liner, Ernest A. ... Western terrestrial garter snake Thamnophis elegans vagrans. Adults vary from 16 to 43 inches in length. gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate), Amphibians and Reptiles of the Great Lakes Region, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, http://imnh.isu.edu/digitalatlas/bio/reptile/serp/thel/thelfram.htm, http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/63976/0, http://www.thamnophis.com/archive/articles/artic22.htm, http://www1.dnr.wa.gov/nhp/refdesk/herp/html/4thel.html, http://extension.oregonstate.edu/gardening/node/972/print. Individuals that live in inland areas usually hunt in and around water. Immobility and supination in garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans) following handling by human predators. Sampling Western Skink Rubber Boa Racer Night Snake Gopher W. Terrestrial Common Western Sites Fence Lizard Snake Gaiter Snake Garter Snake Rattlesnake Figure 13. Western Terrestrial Garter Snake (Thamnophis elegans) Click Image for more photos. When these snakes hibernate during winter, they often move into rocky areas. ADW doesn't cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. Garter and Water Snakes. A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. The head of the western garter snake is large and distinct from its neck. Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. They can sense vibrations, but it is unclear if they can hear well with their ears. St. John, Alan. Bronikowski, A., D. Vleck. It’s hosted by DreamHost and powered by Movable Type. It’s range does extend to the southeast a bit south of Colorado Springs. having markings, coloration, shapes, or other features that cause an animal to be camouflaged in its natural environment; being difficult to see or otherwise detect. Drummond, H., G. Burghardt. Thamnophis elegans, the western terrestrial garter snake, is found in North America, ranging from northern Mexico to Canada. It can be found in the western United States, as far east as western Nebraska and the Oklahoma Panhandle. 1996. On average, they are about 23 cm long at this point. In Canada, it can be found throughout the central and southern regions of Saskatchewan, Alberta, and Manitoba. They’re well worth your attention. Grants DRL 0089283, DRL 0628151, DUE 0633095, DRL 0918590, and DUE 1122742. "Thamnophis elegans" (On-line). Thamnophis elegans . See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome. (Gould, 2013; Kaplan, 2000), Usually western terrestrial garter snakes mate in the spring, but mating can also occurs in the fall. Disturbed B.C. Since snakes are reptiles, they can either lay eggs or bear live young. Gould, F. 2013. November 05, 2013 This is a North American snake that is venomous, but that is not detrimental for people. Chromatic and achromatic crypsis of two colour forms of the Western Terrestrial Garter Snake (Thamnophis elegans). Rubber boas are constrictors and eat small mammals, especially young mice and shrews. She’s been a great snake: curious and tame (biting only once in all that time), with a constrictor’s muscle tone and a coachwhip’s appetite. Houston: Gulf. November 05, 2013 They commonly eat frog and toad larvae, leeches, and fish. As pets. Rossman, Douglas A., Neil B. Ford and Richard A. Seigel. Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes). A Field Guide to Snakes of California. The black-necked gartersnake (Thamnophis cyrtopsis) is typically described as a Southwest species. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 83.5: 656-663. offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) Calgary: University of Calgary Press. at http://imnh.isu.edu/digitalatlas/bio/reptile/serp/thel/thelfram.htm. the kind of polygamy in which a female pairs with several males, each of which also pairs with several different females. There are rough estimates of there at least 100,000 mature individuals in the wild, and there are no significant threats to this species. In these metropolitan areas they share space with the Western Terrestrial Garter Snake (Thamnophis elegans), the most common of the state’s gartersnakes. November 13, 2013 The female retains the eggs within her until the young are born. Litter size can vary based on how many males mated with a female. They can perceive small movements and follow them closely. The third species of snake known to Mayne Island is the wandering garter snake (Thamnophis elegans vagrans), a subspecies of western terrestrial garter found in the southern Gulf Islands and in other regions throughout North America. Six subspecies are recognized by Rossman, Ford & Siegel(1996) but currently I only keep the Coast Garter Snakes (Thamnophis elegans terrestris). Brown, Philip R. 1997. 23. Mexican garter snake (Thamnophis eques). Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia. Houston: Gulf. The Western Terrestrial Garter Snake is considered one of the easiest garter snake species to maintain in captivity because of its wide prey preferences. movements of a hard surface that are produced by animals as signals to others. They were first documented in 1758 and are divided into 13 subspecies. This organ is employed when a snake thrusts its tongue out, allowing the snake to "taste" the air, and it quickly withdraws its tongue back into the mouth to further process the sensation by rubbing the tongue on the sensory pits. This species exhibits sexual dimorphism, as females are bigger than males. The Wandering Garter Snake (T. e. vagrans) is a species of special concern in Oklahoma. An animal that eats mainly insects or spiders. Females produce eggs about the same time. (Cossel Jr, 2000; Gould, 2013; Hallock and McAllister, 2009), The home range size of western terrestrial garter snakes is not reported in the literature and is likely to vary, depending on local habitat quality. They bask on surfaces that absorb and retain solar heat. The 6th and 7th upper scales are higher than they are wide, because there are glands in the upper jaw. Most snakes in Idaho are egg layers but both garter snakes bear live young, typically between July and September. reproduction in which eggs develop within the maternal body without additional nourishment from the parent and hatch within the parent or immediately after laying. animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature. Snakes of North America: Western Region. The Garter Snakes: Evolution and Ecology. This is not a universal reaction — the one bite I have observed produced no such symptoms — but be advised that this is possible. Fields. The most widespread subspecies, and the subspecies found most often in captivity, is the Wandering Garter Snake. Cossel Jr, J. 2014. The young venture out to eat anything they can find before temperatures drop too low. living in residential areas on the outskirts of large cities or towns. Individuals in other populations, at lower elevations have longer lifespans. Norman OK: University of Oklahoma Press. This elegant little garter snake is a frequent visitor to many backyards throughout its range. They hunt by looking for movements and observing chemical cues with their Jacobson’s organs. Savonen, C. 2007. Contributor Galleries Out west they can be found high up into the mountains. They typically produce 8 to 12 offspring per mating, although 4 to 19 have been recorded. Gregory, P., L. Gregory. The contents of this site are copyright © their respective authors and are subject to a Creative Commons Licence. Reptiles of the Northwest. Venom paralyzes the prey just enough for the snake to swallow it whole. (Garner and Larsen, 2005; Gould, 2013), Females give birth to live young after retaining the eggs in their bodies. Some are basically finished; others are very much under construction. Perlowin, David. They produce sperm at the end of summer, which is then stored until springtime mating. www.anapsid.org. Ranges widely from the California coast north through most of northern California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho and Montana, into Canada, including Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan, and east into the states of Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, Arizona and New Mexico and just barely making it into South Dakota, Nebraska, and Oklahoma. There sometimes can be black or red spots between the side and top stripes. Thamnophis elegans is found in central British Columbia, central Alberta, and southwestern Manitoba in Canada. Snakes of the United States and Canada. uses smells or other chemicals to communicate. Irvine CA: Advanced Vivarium Systems. at http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/63976/0. This terrestrial biome includes summits of high mountains, either without vegetation or covered by low, tundra-like vegetation. A widespread and adaptable snake found across the western half of North America, Thamnophis elegans has been recorded from sea level to high elevations. They may also attempt immobility, depending on body temperature and other strategies already employed. The act or condition of passing winter in a torpid or resting state, typically involving the abandonment of homoiothermy in mammals. that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle). lucnredlist.org. It is an immensely variable species, and even the most experienced herpetologists have trouble when it comes to identification. These snakes require energy to invest in reproduction and they need to eat enough to survive winter hibernation. Wandering garter snake. (Drummond and Burghardt, 1983; Kaplan, 2000; Sparkman and Palacios, 2009; Sparkman, et al., 2013), Western terrestrial garter snakes may eat small mammals that are considered pests. 2012. having the capacity to move from one place to another. It is an intriguing species that sometimes wanders far away from water and can be quit terrestrial, hence the name Western Terrestrial Garter Snake. Common garter snakes, a closely related species, live between 6 and 12 years in captivity, but the average life span in the wild is only 2 years. Can snakes hide in plain view? In the United States, T. elegans ranges from New Mexico to western Oklahoma and Nebraska, through the Dakotas to the Canadian border and west to the Pacific Coast. Western Terrestrial Garter Snakes are reasonably common in the pet trade, at least as garter snakes go. Snakes of North America: Eastern and Central Regions. Snakes of the United States and Canada: Natural History and Care in Captivity. Predicted Distribution Reptiles do not migrate as some birds and mammals, so the colored areas depict the predicted range for the Western Terrestrial Garter Snake year-round. Moving westward, the Mountain Garter Snake is found in California, Nevada and Oregon, and the Coast Garter Snake is found along the Pacific Coast in California and Oregon. Young snakes are more aggressive than adults when feeding. For general information on keeping garter snakes in captivity, please see the Care Guide. They are medium-sized snakes, usually 46–104 cm (18–41 in). The Western Terrestrial Garter Snakes are frequent visitors to many backyards throughout its range. The female is, as of early 2012, still going strong at nearly 13 years of age. 2002. Accessed Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. The Animal Diversity Web team is excited to announce ADW Pocket Guides! In the Coast Range, it is found commonly in forest clearings that contain rotting stumps and logs. At least five subspecies are currently recognized. The background color between the stripes is brownish or greenish. The General Care and Maintenance of Garter Snakes and Water Snakes. Simply type a phrase or keyword into the box below and click the 'Go' button to search our site. oregonstate.edu. The venom is used by the snake to capture prey and is only delivered to small prey through a chewing action. The aquatic garter snake (Thamnophis atratus) is a species of colubrid snake. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands. … Metadata (Data about data or how the map was made) Legend: = Core Habitat = Marginal Habitat. A terrestrial biome. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico. National Science Foundation The Animal Diversity Web is an educational resource written largely by and for college students. November 13, 2013 Amphibians and Reptiles of the Great Lakes Region. The most widespread subspecies, and the subspecies found most often in captivity, is the Wandering Garter Snake. The red-sided garter's (T. s. parietalis) range is nearly as vast as the eastern's. Western terrestrial garter snake - WikiMili, The Free Encyclopedia - WikiMili, The Free Encyclopedia Hallock, L., K. McAllister. Deserts can be cold or warm and daily temperates typically fluctuate. 2005. When these snakes hibernate during winter, they often move into rocky areas. Members of some populations of the western terrestrial garter snake, Thamnophis elegans, are the only garter snakes known to constrict prey (Peterson, 1978; Gregory et al., 1980). Garter Snakes. 2006. Western terrestrial garter snakes are commonly found around lakes and slow flowing streams, but are also found in desert areas, plains, mountains, meadows, and forests as well. Black-necked garter snake (Thamnophis cyrtopsis). When they feel threatened, they secrete the contents of their cloaca. Accessed January 22, 2021 at https://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Thamnophis_elegans/. Along the sides, they have a yellow stripe that runs the length of the body. Despite the name Western Terrestrial Garter snake, some subspecies of elegans are aquatic. (Cossel Jr, 2000; Wechsler, 2001), Thamnophis elegans has a 2 to 3 month gestation period. 1997. They den communally for winter hibernation and if they become dormant during the summer. Additional support has come from the Marisla Foundation, UM College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, Museum of Zoology, and Information and Technology Services. Secretions from these snakes’ Duvernoy’s gland may be somewhat toxic; pain, redness and swelling have been reported by people who have been bitten by Western Terrestrial Garter Snakes. It is found exclusively along the coast of Oregon and California. Garter snakes can be found in a variety of habitats: Woodland. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 120.3: 262-268. All-black individuals are occasionally found. In order to survive the winter the young need to be aggressive in acquiring food. In Mexico, they can be found in northern Baja California. A website for garter snake enthusiasts, Gartersnake.info provides information on every species of garter snake, including articles, answers to your questions, and the most comprehensive guide to keeping them in captivity on the web. Stay up to date by subscribing to the RSS feed or by following @gartersnakeinfo on Twitter. Whitaker, J. having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature. Some populations found in high elevation or near lakes have shorter lifespans. The male succumbed to internal parasites in 2003. Melanistic wandering garters have been produced. An isolated population occurs in Baja California, Mexico. Edmonton: Lone Pine. Russell, Anthony P. and Aaron M. Bauer. As pets. Here in Oregon they can be found just about everywhere in except for the highlands of the Cascade mountain range (see figure 1). Kaplan, M. 2000. They are preyed on by a wide variety of predatory birds and mammals. After the female gives birth to the newborns, they are left to defend themselves. The most common causes of mortality is predation or over winter starvation in young snakes. 1997. Range The second most widely distributed garter snake in Canada, the western garter snake can be found from southern British Columbia and Alberta east to southwestern Saskatchewan all the way south to central New Mexico and west into central California. Up to six subspecies of Thamnophis elegans have been recognized; several of them are not recognized by all authorities on the basis of recent research. This is because sand does not hold water well so little is available to plants. 1994. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Alberta. The western terrestrial garter snake (Thamnophis elegans) is a western North American species of colubrid snake. (Cossel Jr, 2000; Gregory and Gregory, 2006; Isaac and Gregory, 2012; Sparkman, et al., 2013), Western terrestrial garter snakes are negatively impacted by predation from predatory birds as well as mammals such as opossums, raccoons, and minks. (Bronikowski and Vleck, 2010; Harding, 1997; Wechsler, 2001), Local climate and seasons dictate when western terrestrial garter snakes are active. Common garter snakes live in a wide range of habitats across North America. 2013. (Drummond and Burghardt, 1983; Gould, 2013), Western terrestrial garter snakes avoid predation by blending into their surroundings using cryptic coloration. 1983. Houston: Gulf. The chemical has a foul odor that the snake rubs on itself and onto the threat when there is contact. The picture shows a typical wandering garter snake skin pattern, characterized by the light color stripes. 2009. Sweeney, Roger. London: Blandford. Common garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis), a close relative of western terrestrial garter snakes, grows to 150 grams. Garter snake is a common name for generally harmless, small to medium-sized snakes belonging to the genus Thamnophis. (Frost, et al., 2013). Western Terrestrial Garter Snake The medium-sized snake is basically terrestrial, but at times it becomes semi-aquatic. The western terrestrial garter snake (Thamnophis elegans) is a western North American species of colubrid snake. "Garter snakes benefit garden ecosystem" (On-line). living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. 2003. This is a notably large range. In addition, females that were heavier before insemination tend to have larger litters. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria. Geographic range It is found exclusively along the coast of Oregon and California. Males become sexually active when the air temperature beings to rise. Once warmed up, they are most active during the day and spend time hunting. It should not be difficult to convert a snake of this species to a mouse-based diet, though there are always exceptions. "Western Terrestrial Garter Snake" (On-line). Disclaimer: However, once western terrestrial garter snakes are born, they are left to defend themselves and there is no further parental care. The subspecies of western terrestrial garter snake found in the pacific northwest is commonly called the wandering garter snake. Western terrestrial garter snakes produce a very mildly neurotoxic venom, but do not pose a threat to people as they cannot effectively deliver the venom to anything but their small prey. 2013. They are considered mildly venomous, but they are not a threat to people as they have no effective means of delivering the venom and it is only mildly toxic, causing minor irritation. Frost, D., G. Hammerson, B. Hollingsworth. www.thamnophis.com. November 05, 2013 Courtship begins when the temperature rises in the spring and females release a pheromone to alert males they are ready to mate. ... Litters range in number from 5-60, born during late July, August or September. Dark spots occasionally occur on the back. 1994. Bartlett, R. D. and Alan Tennant. Consid-ered over the whole species range, these snakes probably feed more heavily on small mammals than do members of any other garter snake spe- The western terrestrial garter snake (Thamnophis elegans) varies significantly in individual growth rates and life-history traits (maturation, reproduction, and survival) among adjacent populations in nature. They do not mature as quickly and produce fewer offspring with each breeding season. Thamnophis elegans can be found at elevations ranging from sea level to 3993 meters. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 12.1: 43-48. and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). (Cossel Jr, 2000), Western terrestrial garter snakes are considered least concern by the IUCN Red List. If you have experience with this species and would like to share, please contact me. Two of these subspecies — the Arizona Garter Snake, found in Arizona and New Mexico, and the Upper Basin Garter Snake, found in Utah and along Utah’s borders with Arizona, Colorado and Wyoming — are poorly defined and not recognized by the CNAH. Morphology. The most commonly seen varieties are the Coast Garter Snake (especially the red morph) and the Wandering Garter Snake. Standard common and current scientific names for North American amphibians and reptiles. SSAR Herpetological Circular No. "Thamnophis elegans" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Young snakes immediately start to feed in order to survive the long winter hibernation. It has possibly the widest prey preferences of any natricine: it will eat amphibians, earthworms, fish, mammals and other reptiles. (Garner and Larsen, 2005; Gould, 2013), Females retain the eggs in their body before they hatch, which is a significant energy investment. While ADW staff and contributors provide references to books and websites that we believe are reputable, we cannot necessarily endorse the contents of references beyond our control. at http://extension.oregonstate.edu/gardening/node/972/print. "Garter Snakes" (On-line). commonly is … Elevational distribution of reptile species observed from all sampling techniques for 1993, 1994, and 1995. Avian predation and the evolution of life histories in the garter snake Thamnophis elegans. They are most commonly found around lakes and slow flowing streams, but occur in deserts, plains, mountains, meadows, and forests as well. Classification, To cite this page: These snakes have a chemical that is secreted from their cloaca and musk glands when threatened. Accessed ———. Taxon Information In captivity a number of pattern morphs, as well as an albino, have been produced. Latin Name. at http://www.anapsid.org/gartcare.html. Accessed In Mex­ico, they can be found in north­ern Baja Cal­i­for­nia. In the wild it’s found across the western Great Plains and Canadian Prairies and into the Rocky Mountains. The San Pedro Mártir Garter Snake is found in Baja California; its common name in Spanish is Culebra de Agua Nómada de San Pedro Mártir. This is a notably large range. Facts, control & identification. Garner, T., K. Larsen. Until they are large enough to eat normal prey, young snakes eat insects and other invertebrates. (Gould, 2013; Hallock and McAllister, 2009), Coastal populations of western terrestrial garter snakes primarily eat organisms that are found on land. Garter Snake Hibernaculum Disturbed in B.C. Washington: Smithsonian Books. 2003. A close up picture would show the snake’s eight upper labial scales, typical of all Thamnophis elegans subspecies. Salt limits the ability of plants to take up water through their roots. the state that some animals enter during winter in which normal physiological processes are significantly reduced, thus lowering the animal's energy requirements. Three different subspecies of Western Terrestrial Garter Snakes (Thamnophis elegans) inhabit western North America. They are solitary during active times of the year. Referring to something living or located adjacent to a waterbody (usually, but not always, a river or stream). living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture. At least five subspecies are currently recognized. 2000. The ADW Team gratefully acknowledges their support. In addition, many populations live in protected areas. It is likely that the lifespan of T. elegans is similar. Western terrestrial garter snake (Thamnophis elegans). In captivity a number of pattern morphs, as well as an albino, have been produced. A test of life-history theories of immune defence in two ecotypes of the garter snake, Thamnophis elegans. 2nd ed. The American Midland Naturalist, 170.1: 66. chemicals released into air or water that are detected by and responded to by other animals of the same species. Help us improve the site by taking our survey. (Frost, et al., 2013), Western terrestrial garter snakes generally have grayish-green backs and yellow bellies. Please be patient while I work on this section. While this species is not necessarily more prone to bite humans than other species of garter snake, bites from this species may be of special concern. Search in feature The Evolution of Garter Snake Toxin Resistance, Raising Baby Garter Snakes: Some Personal Observations, Scientific and Common Names for the Amphibians and Reptiles of Mexico in English and Spanish, The General Care and Maintenance of Garter Snakes and Water Snakes, Snakes of the United States and Canada: Natural History and Care in Captivity, The Garter Snakes: Natural History and Care in Captivity, Snakes of North America: Eastern and Central Regions, Culebra de Agua Nómada Occidental Terrestre. This is a fairly common and widespread snake. In dune areas vegetation is also sparse and conditions are dry. These snakes have a reputation for cannibalism and should be housed one to a cage to prevent them from eating one another. The snake is diurnal. Western terrestrial garter snake is a species of snake belonging to the family Colubridae, found in western North America. We present such an analysis using demographic data collected during the interval 1978–1996 for six populations of western terrestrial garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans) from two evolutionarily divergent ecotypes. Wechsler, D. 2001. Lawns. 2010. Jake Whitaker (author), University of Wyoming, Hayley Lanier (editor), University of Wyoming - Casper, Angela Miner (editor), Animal Diversity Web Staff. The secretion has a bad odor that the snake will rub on itself and on predators when attacked. Some of the most common subspecies include: Eastern – found east of the Mississippi River and in Ontario. Gartersnake.info is run by Jonathan Crowe; contact him with your questions or comments. I acquired a pair of yearling wandering garters in 2000; in 2002 they had a litter of seven babies. Two snakes (not a two headed snake!) Accessed This website is an associate of Amazon.com. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. Malabar FL: Krieger. http://imnh.isu.edu. They occur north into the very southern tip of Alaska, south to Oklahoma, east to Iowa and Minnesota and west to Montana and Wyoming. Western Terrestrial Garter Snake Thamnophis elegans. The Coast Garter Snake is also seen in the pet trade: three colour morphs — brown, black and a colourful red — are known. Lakeside CA: Advanced Vivarium Systems. Grasslands. 1999. (Frost, et al., 2013), Western terrestrial garter snakes are often found near water, but can be found in water as well. (Cossel Jr, 2000; Hallock and McAllister, 2009), Western terrestrial garter snakes have well-developed senses of taste and smell but poor eyesight and poor depth perception.

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