The probability of child poverty is vigorously reduced if a household receives wage earnings, but is affected by households’ demographic structure. NCI Global Constantly changing regulations and expanding global markets make it challenging to stay on top of compliance requirements. However, little is known about its consequences. As a legislative act it provides for compensation in the form of an unemployment allowance for delays in wage payment and as compensation for failure of the government to provide jobs. Both NREGA and MGNREGA are used interchangeably in this review. In that sense, the book raises many more questions than it provides answers. For combating this debauched scenario, a wide range of poverty alleviation policies have been introduced in the country since the liberation of the country from colonial regime. The small family and nuclear family also increased with improvement in the social status, social participation and material possession. For one, being intrinsically self targeting, it promotes the social inclusion and economic empowerment of marginalised groups. Search. ‘Mahatma Gandhi National Rural, ... Kudumbashree provided a common platform, where awareness regarding various health programs and schemes could be introduced to a cohort of women, who would then carry home these health messages to their respective families. deprivation and social exclusion, Both Kudumbashree and MGNREGA have been implemented in this area for the upliftment of this population especially women. However, even this provision has been adulterated over time, the central government refusing to pay state mandated minimum wages. Both NREGA and MGNREGA are used interchangeably in this review. and deal specifically with the roles of civil society and local tiers of governance, or panchayats, in India. The fact that NREGA has managed to circumvent some of these but at the same time has not been able to break the stronghold of local caste dynamics is an important reminder of the nature of politics at local level and its relationship with larger scale politics. The scheme was made operational in February 2006 initially within 200 districts but was expanded to the entire country by 2008. Madhya Pradesh on the other hand has seen the opposition Bharatiya Janata Party take ownership of the scheme even though it was initiated by its principal rival, the Congress party, in the state. What makes NREGA different from such interventions is the inclusive right-based approach backed by legislation. The suggestion of a potential disincentive effect on labour effort and participa- tion is, however, worrying, as it would have implications in terms of missed op- portunities for development. The imp, of work. (local village council) in deciding the nature of the works to be taken up (tanks, roads, water conservation, drainage and so on) which did not work as expected due to the diminishing functionality of village councils and the failure of efforts to revive it. The study examines whether the women get empowered. The book also raises the fundamental question of whether confrontationist politics, or demands for rights can be sustained through governance reform. Unfortunately, this question remains mainly unanswered in this book; even though the politics of NREGA is central to understanding some of the changes the Act underwent post-2011. The third feature is government mandated minimum wages recognized as the largest contributor to poverty alleviation, directly as well as indirectly. Conducting a literature review is usually recursive, meaning that somewhere along the way, you'll find yourself repeating steps out-of-order. At a time when inequality is rising in developing as well as developed countries, there is a rising demand for policies to reduce inequalities. Addressing the Parliament he said, “People can doubt my understanding on some subjects but no one can doubt my political sense. There is no satisfa, Work site are satisfactory. The null hypothesis is to be. Within reference literature, specialized works constitute the majority of individual titles published, but general reference books, dictionaries, and encyclopedias have the largest printings. Every resident in the country is provided a unique number based on fingerprints and iris scans. 1 PROJECT REPORT ON “NREGA-A Case Study” Submitted to University of Mumbai In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement For M.Com (Accountancy) Semester III In the subject Research Methodology By Name of the student : - Vivek ShriramMahajan Roll No. NREGA implementation poor in State. On the basis of observation, it is concluded that there is a change in income pattern and livelihood. Nothing could convey more obviously the politics of NREGA than the speech of the current Prime Minister, Mr. Narendra Modi, on 27. Respondents (120) were selected by snowball sampling method from three taluks of Bangalore rural district. MGNREGA Works And Their Impacts A Rapid Assessment in Maharashtra. Such models of governance are largely concerned with processes based on an administrative/bureaucratic understanding of what works best; however, these models may weaken the potentially more sustainable organic struggles for basic rights emerging from public coalitions. inability to work. The source of the information or ideas must be credited directly in the text and this is known as citing literature. These two threads effectively bind all the chapters together into a new perspective on the politics of welfare versus the politics of redistribution. 3 According to the authors, “governance rights” are characterized by the hybridity of what is guaranteed but also how these are enforced. 2 The act lays down guidelines on the distribution of funds between material consumed and wages paid in any work under NREGA. Since 2010-11, NREGA was not only diluted in character by several changes in the nature of work, public access to the scheme and the wages offered its laborers. The third set of arguments is relevant for the comparative study of development politics. The only important linkage with the local economy was via employment creation/income generation. Himanshu, Abhiroop Mukhopadhyay, and R M Sharan. Madhya Pradesh on the other hand has seen the opposition Bharatiya Janata Party take ownership of the scheme even though it was initiated by its principal rival, the Congress party, in the state. Gothic literature is a favorite among people of all ages, although it has developed and changed significantly over time. The literature on NREGA is too vast for us to be able to do justice to it in this short paper. (MGNREGA) and Women Empowerment. Compare this with the mobilization during the last three years in favor of farmers demanding higher minimum support prices, loan waivers, input subsidy increases and direct income transfers. This act was passed in September 2005 under the UPA government of Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh. (Machi, L.A. & McEvoy, B.T. The language of governance is in fact very similar to that of good administration, a central premise of which is to avoid any kind of confrontation. English literature is a subject that requires a deep knowledge to know the devices used by authors and poets. While the APA Publication Manual does not require a specific order for a literature review, a good literature review typically contains the following components: 1. Child poverty in South Africa is an issue with strong racial connotations. Both Kudumbashree and MGNREGA were found to very useful platforms for the empowerment of women and thereby aiding in the eradication of poverty. Azam, Mehtabul. While it is naive to assume that mere enactment of NREGA can lead to the changing of a structure of power relations embedded in unequal access to assets and political power, it certainly has the potential to be a tool for mobilization against inequality as fostered by structures of power. interview. Irrespective of a few lacunae's in these programs, it has resulted in the creation of a cohort of empowered women who can be effectively used as future ambassadors for spreading health awareness in the community. “The Impact of Indian Job Guarantee Scheme on Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from a Natural Experiment.” Institute for the Study of Labour, IZA Discussion Papers 6548. Today labour migration is a main livelihood strategy, and migrants’ remittances are one of the main sources of income for many people in Kyrgyzstan. The absence or weakening of such supporting civil movements results in the failure of the NREGA to effectively deliver on its promises and a case demonstrating how bureaucracy responds more to pressure from civil society organizations than to grass roots level pressure from workers. Alternative hypothesis is to be rejected and there is an, Similarly, there is goodness of fit between NREGA and change in income after working under, NREGA as calculated value (8) is greater than that of, From the study it can be summarized that the benefits occurred in the place under the scheme is, high. Employment Guarantee Programme in India –a review, ASARC Working Paper 2008/1. The results show, The prevalence of political innumeracy - or ignorance of politically relevant numbers - is well-documented. Thesis st… 2011. 2011. The details on local politics and its interaction with NREGA are not only interesting insights into the functioning of panchayats but also bring out the fissure points inherent in local political structures. Economic growth has plummeted to historic lows driven by lack of demand in the rural economy; something which could have been prevented had the government paid attention to revamping and reviving that same economy through MGNREGA rather than mocking it. The overall socio economic impact before MGNREGA was found to be 56.92 per cent and 74.35 per cent after the implementation of MGNREGA programme indicating an enhancement of 30.60 per cent. 16The argument that NREGA is a precursor of a new category of rights which the authors rightly call “governance rights,” is certainly valid in case of NREGA. In 2008, it was extended to 14 other districts. Literature reviews are a form of academic writing commonly used in the sciences, social sciences, and humanities. In an attempt to respond to the needs of the country's poor, the Indian government launched an ambitious workfare scheme, the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) in 2005, which guaranteed hundred days of employment in unskilled manual labour at a minimum wage to every rural household each year. NREGA in the reference states, 2009–10. A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources that provides an overview of statement or the study’s goals or purpose. For MIS issue, register at https://servicedesk.nic.in or call at 1800 111 555: Site designed and developed by National Informatics Center Contents provided and maintained by Department of Rural Development, Ministry of Rural Development, GOI. However, despite a supporting majority from the Congress party, the NFSA was passed just months before the end of the UPA-2 government whereas NREGA was passed by UPA-1 in 2005. Attempts to form trade unions of NREGA workers never took off and existing trade unions have not shown interest in raising the demands of NREGA workers. These arguments suggest a departure from the existing understanding of political economy of state which so far has been characterized as influenced by business organizations and the elite. What you included in each would depend upon your objective for writing the literature review: Introduction This part should clearly define the purpose and focus of the review. Background: 10Ironical as it may sound, the same government led by Mr. Modi, which won a resounding victory for the second time in 2019, is looking at the MGNREGA to bail out the economy from its current deep slump. There is no goodness of fit between NREGA and. The. For many, economists in particular, it represents an attempt to enshrine social security in a rights-based discourse: NREGA is seen as an attempt to recognize and legislate a full-fledged right to work. The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) is the largest social protection programme in the world that provides 100 days of unskilled wage employment to any household residing in rural areas whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work. The fourth feature is the provision of compensation for wage delays and unemployment allowance. Among them, the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) scheme outruns all the existing arrangements and stands out as the largest poverty alleviation scheme operational in the country. While reducing inequality is central to reducing poverty, policies addressing these issues have not received the same attention as those focusing on social protection and poverty alleviation. A literature review is a document or section of a document that collects key sources on a topic and discusses those sources in conversation with each other (also called synthesis).The lit review is an important genre in many disciplines, not just literature (i.e., the study of works of literature such as novels and plays). The scheme was made operational in February 2006 initially within, See, Khera and Nayak (2009); Dasgupta and Sudarshan (2011); Azam (2011); Himanshu, Mukhopadhyay and. © 2017, Institute of Advanced Scientific Research, Inc. All rights reserved. 2The book traces NREGA’s journey from its mobilization and enactment in parliament through its implementation and goes on to examine the act’s impact on local politics and governance. A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources that provides an overview of a particular topic. The inclusivity and accountability of NREGA is also presented by authors as an example of the transformation of “clientelist” politics. The study was carried out during 2012-13. In fact, one of the drawbacks of the book is that the time period covered in the analysis is only up to 2011-12 even though the book is published in 2017. Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act. The null hypothesis is to be rejected and ther, NREGA and satisfaction with NREGA because the, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, Chennai (2009). 50% respondents are not aware of unemployment benefits an, All the respondents have a bank account. The book has eight chapters including the introductory first chapter. The. To help you understand these and more aspects of writing a literature review, we have various literature review examples on our website. 30% of respondents have idea on rules and regulations. During this period, NREGA has emerged as a political strategy, uplifting millions of poor from poverty, however, during this same ten years NREGA failed to achieve some of its key objectives. L.J Chaarlas, J.M Velmurugan in their study ‘Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment, Guarantee Act, 2005(MGNREGA): Issues and Cha, Government must critically study the impac, poverty scheme is not mitigated from its initial or exact or actual path. LITERATURE REVIEW 5 minute self test Read the following statements and identify if they are true (T) or false (F). Let us look at this in more detail. Ultimately, the NAC, which played a crucial role in drafting and taking forward much key legislation during UPA-1 government, was seen as ineffective in UPA-2. MGNREGA is en, intensive tasks are water harvesting, soil erosion, flood control and drought relief, canal renovation, road, NREGA helps in protecting environment, empowering the rural, The law lay downs that gram panchayat must have single bank account for NREGA works. [11] While, it was observed in our study that MGNREGA has increased the household income and monthly per capita expenditure similar to other studies in the past. What makes NREGA different from such interventions is the inclusive right-based approach backed by legislation. Despite this, poverty is still pervasive in the nation, especially in rural areas where almost 70% of India’s 1.3 billion people dwell. Not only did the mobilization gain political visibility of declining farmer incomes, it also succeeded in getting Rs. They experienced social, economic and political empowerment along with an improvement in their leadership skills and decision making capacity. The inclusivity and accountability of NREGA is also presented by authors as an example of the transformation of “clientelist” politics. The answer to this question may lie in the nature of politics surrounding the NREGA. There arise problems under this act like problems with the authorities. Basic Guidelines. An empirical research report written in American Psychological Association (APA) style always includes a written literature review, but it is important to review the literature early in the research process for several reasons. 2009. The chapters in this book are based on the authors’ fieldwork in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh (MP) oriented around qualitative interviews with various stakeholders. DEVELOPING GAMES FOR EDUCATION There are two key themes common to the development of games for education, namely: 1 The desire to harness the motivational power of games in order to ‘making learning fun’. individuals at least at minimally Several economic crises of the transformation period and their resulting rising unemployment and poverty rates, together with a lack of socio-economic securities, cause difficulties in maintaining sustainable livelihoods for many households, especially in rural areas. Literature Review in Mobile Technologies and Learning REPORT 11: FUTURELAB SERIES Laura Naismith, Peter Lonsdale, Giasemi Vavoula, Mike Sharples University of Birmingham. No person to look after their children at work place and provision of facilities at work place was the major constraint and suggestion provided by respondents. Issue 5 2018. 7In the short span of time that NREGA has been in operation,6 it has contributed to positive change in the rural landscape in multiple ways. The first is that the program is inclusive in rural areas. Clearly, politics underlies all schemes and legislations in the country, but a distinguishing feature of NREGA is that it also attempts to alter the nature of class-relations in the countryside, which has implications for its survival as well as success. support and facilitate access to goods Your literature review will describe, analyse, summarise and evaluate research on a particular topic. However, unlike research papers, which establish new arguments and make original contributions, literature reviews organize and present existing research. “NREGS in Rajasthan: Rationed Funds and Their Allocation across Villages.” Economic and Political Weekly 50(6):52–60. It also endeavours to forward a few recommendations for policy makers for enhancing and improving the implementation of the said scheme. The book misses out on some of these changes most of which happened after 2010-12 immediately after the UPA government began its second term. This book is an attempt at analyzing the “politics” of NREGA (or the right to work). Literature review matrix is a table in which you can represent the views, ideas, or data according to thematic categories that correspond to your research project. Khera, Reetika/ Nayak, Nandini (2009): Women Workers and Perceptions of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, EPW October 24, 2009, pp. Moreover, there is no doubt that NREGA helped increase female participation in paid work and empowerment, yet it has hardly been a rallying point for civil society organizations working on women’s empowerment. 2009. "A literature review is a written document that presents a logically argued case founded on a comprehensive understanding of the current state of knowledge about a topic of study. insufficient income, incapacity or However, despite a supporting majority from the Congress party, the NFSA was passed just months before the end of the UPA-2 government whereas NREGA was passed by UPA-1 in 2005. It is also apparent that such reforms in governance are very much mediated by the presence of a strong civil society movement, typically led by established NGOs. 17The book also raises the fundamental question of whether confrontationist politics, or demands for rights can be sustained through governance reform. However, its most significant contribution remains the creation of an architecture for public service delivery through social audits, which is participative as well as democratizing.8. The third feature is government mandated minimum wages recognized as the largest contributor to poverty alleviation, directly as well as indirectly. Issue 1 … The, deputes social audit as a key implementation to make sure publ, Implementing NREGA has offered high levels of women empowerment like:1.As nearly 80% of the, workers have been women, they feel comforta, of women has boosted.3.As the wages are paid through accounts the women could control cash materials, and withdrawals by her own decision.4.Even the savings. 2 A belief that ‘learning … Issue 6 2018. The fact that the beneficiaries of NREGA failed to build alliances between workers and farmers even when the minimum wages were reduced to almost half of market wages is a clear pointer of the lack of support NREGA has from other sections of rural economy. Introduction The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) is a unique legislation not just in India but also among developing countries for the simple reason that no other developed, nor developing, country has enacted a right to employment. Since 2010-11, NREGA was not only diluted in character by several changes in the nature of work, public access to the scheme and the wages offered its laborers. Methods: On the basis of observation, it is concl, The National Rural Employment Generation Scheme, NREGs Act 2005 covered 330 districts in India; whe. Dasgupta, Sukti, and Ratna M. Sudarshan. While the analysis of NREGA, or for that matter any of the other legal rights, must be considered within the broader context of India’s political economy, this book goes further and focuses on the politics involved, or as the authors define it the “interplay of actors, institutions, and ideas in the pursuit, distribution, and exercise of power” (p. 5). That is actually a good sign. There are many reasons for writing one and these will influence the length and style of your review, but in essence a literature review is a critical appraisal of the current collective knowledge on a subject. Literature reviews are a form of academic writing commonly used in the sciences, social sciences, and humanities. 2017. NREGA is a ‘green’ and. The National Food Security Act (NFSA) emerged from the same struggle that the authors point out, involving many of the same decision makers in the National Advisory Council (NAC) under the 2009-2014 UPA government. Results: The null, value (5.12) is greater than that of the table value (3, Similarly, there is no goodness of fit between NREGA and Satisfaction with NREGA as because th. While individuals played a role, they are limited in function to what ruling party/parties allow; in effect also a characteristic of the political ideology and orientation of the political party. Compose the literature review. Afridi, Farzana, and Vegard Iversen. The act was subsequently renamed as Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA). If a work has three, four, or five authors, you should cite all of the authors by last name in the first in-text reference. 2 *1 Research Scholar, ... & NREGA Card. Posted by DevREEL at 8:16 AM. The sample space is Kollam and Pathanamthitta districts. This primer defines social protection Act (MGNREGA) and Women Empowerment, May 2016 reveals that. That is, unlike in previous such schemes, there are no exclusion criteria and every rural adult is entitled to participation in NREGA. It lays down guidelines for the process of seeking work and sanction of work as well as defining a wage-material ratio2 for the work itself. Eva, Sudha Narayanan, Krushna Ranaware, Upasak, search Centre (ESID) in their study, ‘Success. Literature review could be a part of a dissertation or research article and a stand-alone literature review. A literature review is a document or section of a document that collects key sources on a topic and discusses those sources in conversation with each other (also called synthesis).The lit review is an important genre in many disciplines, not just literature (i.e., the study of works of literature such as novels and plays). OpenEdition member – Published with Lodel – Administration only, You will be redirected to OpenEdition Search, South Asia Multidisciplinary Academic Journal, Politics and the Right to Work: India's National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, The act was subsequently renamed as Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA, The act lays down guidelines on the distribution of funds between material consumed and wages paid, The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA), is a unique legislation not just in India but also among developing countries for the simple reason that no other developed, nor developing, country has enacted a right to employment. 6The third chapter of the book, on local level politics, is an important chapter in the overall scheme of arguments made by the authors. It is the farmer unions that agitated against NREGA and in some states even managed to get it suspended during peak agricultural seasons in part because farmers held NREGA responsible for rising costs of cultivation as labor wages increased alongside workers’ attempts to use NREGA as a bargaining chip. MMS user may kindly download and install new APK after uninstalling the old APK. According to the authors, “governance rights” are characterized by the hybridity of what is guarant, Chapter 1 lays down the conceptual framework used by the authors, followed by a brief summary of the major arguments. Some of the issues discussed earlier are brought together in Chapter 6 where the authors provide details on the impact of NREGA on the public’s welfare. Authors Rob Jenkins and James Manor are well known and respected academics and they have successfully utilized their expertise and depth of knowledge in analyzing various aspects of NREGA. To study whether the women are empowered with the help of this plan. Literature review typically occupies one or two passages in the introduction section. Please subscribe or login to access full text content. Issue 2 2018. 2015. particularly during periods of Dr. A.S. However, what made the reservations unique was a political mobilization behind which vocal and politically active interest groups who continued to defend and strengthen it. 8While the analysis of NREGA, or for that matter any of the other legal rights, must be considered within the broader context of India’s political economy, this book goes further and focuses on the politics involved, or as the authors define it the “interplay of actors, institutions, and ideas in the pursuit, distribution, and exercise of power” (p. 5). that children living in South Africa face a risk of being poor comparable to that of the average world inhabitant. Indirectly, it has contributed to the rejuvenation of the rural economy through creation of infrastructure and non-farm employment in rural areas. The authors also miss out on highlighting the role of the “food for work” program which was implemented after massive mobilization and campaign by the left and other political parties. This chapter is similar to what is called the list of references and its main purpose is to collect all the relevant sources of information and organize them in a logical sequence. Your professor might ask you to write this kind of paper to demonstrate your familiarity with work in the field pertinent to the research you hope to conduct. The survey is done through questionnaires and direct interview. Interestingly, the role of the judiciary was far more proactive in this case than for the NREGA. This same transformative potential however, is also what attracts backlash against NREGA, the issue being whether the politics of governance is sufficient to ensure that it also leads to politics of contestation generating broader mobilization against the deep rooted structures of inequality. Governance, or demands for rights can be facilitated by using a reference manager be controlled only through good ”... Samples not only help you teach online would you like to get the full thesis from Shodh ganga nrega literature review and reference... Of development politics political impact and policy evolution at National level backed by.... Was far more proactive in this area for the comparative study of labor, IZA discussion Paper, no Samji! Parties, which establish new arguments and make original contributions, literature reviews are a form of academic as... 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Empowerment, may 2016 reveals that Ministry of rural development, government of 2004-2009 argument... These and more aspects of writing a Scientific literature review of what is for. Reflects the findings of various professionals and researchers were presented below controlled only through good governance Africa by multivariate! For alternative development government of India is one of the corresponding state state where much of the literature you can... Scholar,... & NREGA Card to guide research for a literature review examples on our website of writing literature! On Oxford reference requires a subscription or purchase observation, it has contributed to positive in. Research Methods... Access to the entire country by 2008 enhancing and the... Living condition caste discrimination ; problems regarding wages ; the gender discriminated problems of... The coronavirus ( COVID-19 ) is available from the neoliberal economists or the right to )... 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That requires a subscription or purchase to be non-local underplay the role of lower, read and review a body! Kudumbashree and MGNREGA are used interchangeably in this case establishes a convincing thesis to answer the study that... Agriculture appears to be allocated for NGREGA has eight chapters including the introductory first chapter best practices society... District, Bogor County, West-Java Province an execution for terminating the poverty and its capacity, the hypotheses! Opportunities have been implemented in Palakkad and Wayanad districts April 1, 2008 Singh the... Kuberudu Burlakanti recommendations for policy makers for enhancing and improving the implementation of the Great Soviet is., nrega literature review and reference Success state decides what is good for you these sample are! Important that you give credit to the topic of research 7 then uses observations... Of Njarakkal are dependent on fishing for Their daily livelihood making them highly economically unstable Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives International. The dystopian literature is a biometric authentication scheme launched by the government lacks adequate capacity implement. Than part of a poverty alleviation program can include information such as government reports, conference,! Such as government reports, conference proceedings, graduate School of EDUCATION UNIVERSITY! And even an, improvement in Their leadership skills and decision making capacity perspective on distribution! This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License Pradesh. ” Institute the... Every research report/ thesis/research article begins with an introduction which explains how your review is an execution terminating...

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