It is called Harappan because the remnants of the civilization was discovered first at the modern site of Harappa located in the province of Punjab, Pakistan. Introduction of Origin and Extent of Harappan Civilisation, also know as Indus Valley Civilization We get an account of Origin and Extent of Harappan Civilization (Indus Valley Civilization) from the analysis of the ruins found at different places of the Indus valley and Mesopotamia. The merchandise was shipped from Lothal and incoming goods were received here. Gudea sent expeditions in 2200 B.C. The Meluhha trade was first metioned by Sargon of Akkad (2370 B.C.) Cubical chert weights, discovered at Kish, recall their parapllels from Harappans sites. items which would not easily be identified in archaeology. Harappan people had trade relations within India, as well as with countries outside India. Ras al – Junayaz in Oman has shown an Harappan inscribed sherd, a typical Harappan steatite seal and an ivory comb in association with the remains of a wooden boat coated with bitumen. A few circular seals (discussed later), typical of Persian Gulf seals, bearing the Indus characters have been found in Mesopotamia. Among them five seals are round with the button boss at the back giving the look of Persian Gulf seals with typical Indus characters. Carnelian beads : Etched carnelian beads have been found almost on all Indus sites Mohenjodaro, Harappa, Gumla, Amri III, Kalibangan, Surkotada IC, Lothal , Chanhudaro as also on some Persian, Gulf and, Iranian sites, such as Shahdad Susa, and Mesopotamian sites such as Ur, Kish, Al Hiba, and Tell Asmar. This square sealing depicts a man seated in the lotus position with a headdress and upraised hands. As said earlier, Akkadian documents refer to the lands called Dilmun, Magan and Meluhha, sometimes separately, sometimes together. Later on also Indian timber was required. Apart from two etched carnelian beads at Mundigak, there is no evidence of the Harappan contact with any south Afghanistan site.In South Turkmenia, the major sites which have yielded some evidence of Harappan contact are Altyn Tepe, Namazga Tepe and Gonur Tepe. Obviously, ventures of the kind which involves these categories of people have always two major working unit : (i) Production Unit, and (ii) Distribution Unit. 3. Similarly may have been the situation in regard to the Indus Civilization, although we have no depichered written records to substantiate it in the way it has been possible in the context of Mesopotamia. The Harappan Civilization (HC) was spread over large parts of western region of the Indian Subcontinent. Namazga has yielded an ithyphallic terracotta figure which as a type can be related to the Harappan Civilization. Shahr -i – Sokhta at its eastern end in Iranian Seistan has shown fragments of a Xancus pyrum shell, which possibly came from the Gujarat coast. The fertile land between the Euphrates and Tigers was also surrounded by several neighbouring areas rich in mineral wealth with which it interacted and gave birth to a civilization whose boundaries have, however, not been defined as clearly as that of the Harappa Civilization. This multi – tired has two major components – the Productive Unit and the Distributive Unit, each further divisible in a number of sub – units. May be there were a few temporary stations on the coast but we have no knowledge about them as yet. There are also reports of three Harappan seals in Luristan. External Trade . Harappan seals and other small objects used by the merchants and traders for stamping their goods have been found in Mesopotamia. It clearly shows that the role of the Meluhhans may have been of a kind grossly different from those of the Dilmunites and Maganians. They had uncovered the remains of two long-forgotten cities and found the Indus Valley civilisation. It is our hunch that the Harappans got in return these items, although some luxury items, organic and inorganic both, may also have jbeen imported. At Jiroft in the Halil Valley of southeastern Iran, the finds of two Harappan seals have been noted. He employs an extension of the ‘Central Place’ theory in which he visualizes a place located centrally between the Indus and the Euphrates where commercial negotiations, transactions, etc., took place. The Harappan Civilization was one of the oldest civilization in the Indian sub-continent known for its modern structures.It was a Bronze Age Civilization in the northwestern region of South Asia. The north Iranian route which passes through the southern side of the Elburz range has Hissar and Shah Tepe on it, but Marlik is located to the north of the Elburz. Undoubtedly, for giving protection to commercial interests of the Mesopotamians. luxury items as ivory combs, specific types of The Hindukush was crossed and the Harappan carnelian beads, dice, polished stone weights, traders must have been familiar with … In Afghanistan, the most important related discovery is shortughai, approachable from the south side of the Hindukush by the Khowak pass. Some later texts mention Megan (Ur III Period, 2100 – 2000 B.C.). There is also a report of a cylinder seal with Harappan inscription from Iranian Seistan. These were adopted throughout the Indus culture – area. 3. Read more about Materializing Harappan identities: unity and diversity in the borderlands of the Indus Civilization New excavations at the Umm an-Nar site Ras al-Hadd HD-1, Sultanate of Oman (seasons 2016–2018): insights on cultural interaction and long-distance trade Identical seals have been acquired from Mohenjodaro and Chanhudaro. Cotton : The discovery of a terracotta sealing with the impression of wove fabric from Lothal the actual cotton cloth piece sticking to the base of a silver vase from Mohenjodaro a number of accessories of cotton weavers found at Lothal and other Indus cities and the seal impression with the cotton cloth from Umma indicate that cotton may have been one of the major items on the list of export items. Mesopotamian inscriptions mention the trade between Mesopotamia and Harappans. There are relevant sites in both north and south Iran. The ships containing smaller items may have travelled only as far as Magan or Dilmun, that is at ports between Sutkagendor and Bahrein or failaka islands. Would you like to get a custom essay? The Harappans used hexahedron, popularly known as cubical, weights of chert and agate adhering to a predetermined standard. One Mesopotamian cylinder seal of this period identified its owner as a “Su-i-li-su, Meluhha interpreter.”. Here they were getting the opportunity to negotiate the trade amongst themselves. Etched carnelian beads have also been reported from Abu Salabikh and Tell Brak (a site in northeast Syria but very much within the north Mesopotamian orbit). This has been confirmed by the presence of artefacts, belonging to the Harappan Civilization, such as beads, seals, dice, etc. Further, there is ample proof, literary as well as archaeological, that Indus – Mesopotamian trade was grossly imbalanced, export from Indus was much more than imports, qualitaltively.Harappan trade, according to us, by and large, appears to have been the joint – ventured of Merchants, agents, expert sailors, port authorities and others, since overseas trade was a very complex affair even in Mesopotamia. Indus signs from Tepe Yahya IV B almost complete the list of important known objects. A few seals share Indian as well as Mesopotamian characteristics. In the Kassite context of Failaka there are two round seals with Harappan characters. For sea trade, big boats were used. Dilmun and Magan are the only two places which are repeatedly mentioned at commercial centres. Ur has also yielded a Harappan weight and dice have been reported from Tepe Gawra and Al Hiba. Indirect securing orders for goods on Intermediate sations from middlemen or agents. The external trade of the Harappan Civilization comprises the Harappan and Harappan related objects found in Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Iran, Mesopotamia and the Gulf region. There are also miscellaneous bits of evidence cited as proof of Harppan – Mesopotamia contact. Mention may be made among them of a fragment of steatite vase from Tell Agrab, which shows a humped bull tethered in front of a building.

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