(1987). The main goal of treatments acting on dermis is to enhance collagen production usually that improves skin firmness and youthfulness. This was especially the case in the deep dermis as this layer was almost totally collagenous, therefore, making the deep dermis quite inflexible. Protection against high intravascular pressure in giraffe legs. This poses a gravitational challenge regarding the maintenance of sufficient cranial circulation (Goetz et al., 1960; van Citters et al., 1969; Mitchell et al., 2008), as insufficient blood supply to the head would result in fainting. Thus, the epidermis is not dealt with further here. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. The long legs of the giraffe result in its heart being ∼2 m above the ground (Howard, 1977), thus providing a gravitational challenge to the venous return from the limbs. While some of them work on epidermis solely and cause skin resurfacing, other stimulate dermis too. The skin of the head was for the most part thin (1.47–6.47 mm) but became thicker near the neck. The skin of the giraffe is believed to contribute to edema inhibition because of its “tightness” in the legs (Hargens et al., 1987; Pedley, 1987; Lillywhite, 1996; Pedley et al., 1996). It was evident that the thickness of the skin varied across the body surface (Fig. The authors are grateful to the Danish Giraffe Research team for help during this study and allowing them to take specimens from which this analysis was developed, especially Ulrik Baandrup, Emil T. Brøndum, and Tobias Wang. It is only when further comparative studies are undertaken that the full role the skin plays in either hemodynamics, protection, or thermoregulation (in addition to all the normal roles played by skin in all mammals) in the giraffe will be fully determined. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Defensive structures influence fighting outcomes, Evaluation of somatotype in the reticulated giraffe (. Blood is the sole source of nutrients for your skin. It provides mechanical protection to underlying structures and organs. If the hair follicles fail to support hair growth, then there can be gradual reduction of hair. This is where you find blood capillaries, collagen, elastic fibres and reticular fibres. This problem can cause skin scarring and even disfigurement. We can compare this to the working of a spring. Let’s dig a little deeper into dermis and its functions. Also, blood vessels are involved in different kind of reactions that can lead to swelling, redness or rashes etc. Working off-campus? Consequently, the giraffe has to counteract gravity in two ways to ensure adequate arterial supply to the head and venous return from the legs. The dermis varies in thickness. It provides skin with its specific shape and contour. Scale bar = 100 μm. This is not the case in the rhinoceros, where skin thickness greatly exceeds that predicted by Calder's allometric equations (Shadwick et al., 1992). deep dermis (mm). This may have been the result of the inclusion of a layer of deep fascia when measuring macroscopically and/or the effect of the histological processes on the skin causing shrinkage. The dermis thickness of back has been measured as 1805 and 1941 [micro]m in Caucasian people and Korean people, respectively. This varying thickness primarily represents a difference in dermal thickness, as epidermal thickness is rather constant throughout life and from one anatomic location to another. Eccrine glands are the ones responsible for the characteristic body odour unique to individuals. Given that male giraffes do show intense intraspecific combat (Coe, 1967; Simmons and Scheepers, 1996), it is possible that variations in the thickness of the skin may be related to physical protection and hemodynamic factors relating to the gravitational effects upon blood flow. The densities of both collagen and elastin fibers in the dermal tissue varied across the body surface. The epidermis of the giraffe skin (30–100 μm) was found to be thinner than that of the llama (53–187μm) but thicker than that of the sheep (27–42 μm) and the goat (20–40 μm) (Dimond and Montagna, 1975; Atlee et al., 1997). This is of great cosmetic importance because it can change a person’s appearance and self-image. 1A). 4C, 5). The epidermis of the giraffe skin has been described in detail previously (Dimond and Montagna, 1975), and our observations concur. The average thickness of the superficial dermis varied across the body regions (Table 1, Fig. This concept has been most fully developed by Jarman (1972, 1989) and used to explain the thickness of the skin in the rhinoceros (Shadwick et al., 1992). The prevalence of elastin in this dermal layer is possibly to allow for movement of the skin of the giraffe to complement movement of the joints. Like every other layer, dermis too has some functions of its own. Pictorial maps were created and drawn using the Canvas 8 drawing program to illustrate the different densities of elastic and collagen fibers in these dermal layers. Botox eyebrow lift: Procedure, Cost, Effectiveness And Side Effects, Botox for migraine, Headaches and Teeth Clenching, Non-Surgical Face Lift | Jawline Filler & PDO Threads, I’ve done Botox with CosMedocs and was impressed with their service and professionalism. If this resistance is not in place venous return is insufficient, compromising arterial supply to the head and resulting in a loss of consciousness. Also, individuals with excessive expressions note static lines develop from the mid 20’s onwards. Other skin components such as sweat glands, hair root, blood, and lymphatic vessels are placed within these cells and fibrous tissue. Using the Masson's trichrome technique, Mitchell and Skinner (2004) found that the skin was typically collagenous, making it inflexible and also suggested that the inflexibility of the skin impacted on tissue pressure, and this allowed the skin to provide resistance against high blood pressure. E a a c c b b D SC Shallow wrinkle Deep wrinkle Figure 1. These variations in thickness of the llama skin parallel to those found in this study for the giraffe. Mast cells are second cellular component of the dermis. 1- Hair follicles This is where hair growth starts. Also, Dr Haq’s pleasant and friendly manner makes the treatment as painless as possible!” – CFSP. 1- The papillary layer. 5, 8). The animals were treated in accordance to the University of the Witwatersrand Animal Ethics Committee guidelines for the care and use of animals in scientific experiments, and appropriate permissions for the use of the animal were also obtained from the Limpopo Provincial Governmental Department responsible for wildlife management. The measurements were repeated three times over several hours to eliminate intraobserver error. Proteoglycan gives viscosity and hydration to the dermis while elastin provides normal elasticity and flexibility. Collagen is what constitutes up to 70% of the total weight of the dermis. Skin sections from: (A) foreleg; (B) midtrunk; (C) head; and (D) posterior trunk. The major components of the dermis work together as a network. As dermis contains blood vessels, nutrients reach to epidermis from there. 2). mm, .mm) []. 3.023), thus in this sense, the giraffe does have thicker skin than one might predict based directly on allometry of other mammals; however, the variability of the thickness of skin within and between regions does question the prediction from this allometric equation for the giraffe. In this case, the dark patches of the skin are seen to act as regions where heat loss to the environment can be enabled, this being achieved by vasodilation of the blood vessels beneath the dark patch skin surface. This may be due partially to the difficulties of delineating with precision the limit between superficial and reticular dermis. Greater thicknesses of the skin on the anterior portion of the neck and lateral trunk may act as dermal armor during movement through dense acacia vegetation. The legs of the giraffe were found to exhibit relatively thin skin that had a very high density of collagen fibers in comparison to the skin of the rest of the body. The histological examination of the skin revealed a very thin epidermis, a thicker superficial dermis and a very thick deep dermis. The sections that were stained with hematoxylin and eosin were examined under a low‐power stereomicroscope, and the superficial and deep dermal layers were traced using a camera lucida. Mean skin thickness was 2.54 mm at the suprascapular, 2.02 mm at the … It was discovered that the skin varied in thickness across the entire body and within regions of the body. Scale bar = 100 μm. I will definitely use this service again.” – BH, I am a very satisfied customer of Cosmedocs – I’ve had three facial areas treated with Anti-Wrinkle Injection at CosmeDocs in recent years, and find the treatment swift, thorough and effective. The thickness of the superficial layer of the dermis exhibited a biphasic evolution with age and these variations were not significantly different between men and women because of the large individual variations. The average thickness of the superfi-cial and deep dermis was determined by calculating the average of the thinnest and thickest regions. Skin thickness (epidermis–dermis) across the deltoid, suprascapular, waist and thigh as possible body sites for a new microdelivery system for intradermal (id) inoculation were evaluated using 20 MHz ultrasound echography in 205 women and 137 men aged 18–70 years, in three ethnic groups: Caucasian, Asian and Black. =0.59 mm) (Figure 3B). In both circumstances, blood has to be transported over a relatively long distance (2 m) against the earth's gravitational pull. It is a bag-like structure that nourishes the hair below the skin. The majority of the deep dermis proved to have a high density of collagen fibers (Figs. The analyses performed could not add any new data regarding the thermoregulatory role already described for giraffe skin. Despite the association made between skin morphology in the giraffe and hemodynamics, thick skin in other large mammals has been related to the possibility of it forming dermal armor for protection against predators or during aggression from conspecifics. Figure 1. (A) Taken from the upper rump shows a high density of elastic fibers; (B) taken from midlevel of the neck shows a medium density of fibers; and (C) taken from the anterior trunk shows a low level of fibers. In the other young and adult giraffes, spot tests to confirm the pattern observed in the fully analyzed individual were undertaken. 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