[24] Normally /ɣɣ/ becomes [qː], /ww/ becomes [ɡː], and /dˤdˤ/ becomes [tˤː]. This page was last edited on 27 December 2020, at 14:09. This makes it extremely difficult to decipher longer texts, even for Tuaregs. [19], The consonant inventory largely resembles Arabic: differentiated voicing; uvulars, pharyngeals (traditionally referred to as emphatics) /tˤ/, /lˤ/, /sˤ/, /dˤ/, /zˤ/; requiring the pharynx muscles to contract and influencing the pronunciation of the following vowel (although /lˤ, sˤ/ only occur in Arabic loans and /ɫ/ only in the name of Allah). Report inappropriate content . Sudlow (2001:26) does not make it clear whether this is a true. Figures from the 2009 census suggest that about 3.5 percent of Malians speak Tamasheq, the language of the Tuareg, as their mother tongue; in the country’s three northern regions (Timbuktu, Gao and Kidal), Tamasheq speakers account for about 32 percent. For example, Proto-Berber *h is mostly lost in Ayer Tuareg, while it is maintained in almost every position in Mali Tuareg. For Tuareg as a whole, while two reference grammars in English exist – Heath (2005) for Mali and Kossmann (2011) for the Aïr Mountains – the only other grammar course in English is Sudlow (2001), describing the southeastern Tuareg varieties of Burkina Faso. SIL Electronic Working Papers. Some of these differences can be diachronically accounted for. Private Transfer from Niamey to Diori Hamani Airport (NIM) from $133.52* Private Transfer from Diori Hamani Airport (NIM) to Niamey. http://www.afrikanistik-aegyptologie-online.de/archiv/2011/3167, Lameen Souag in Afrikanistik-Ägyptologie-online, http://www.afrikanistik-aegyptologie-online.de/archiv/2011/3167, 13-16. Outstanding are the great four-vol­ume dictionary and the texts compiled by, The Tuaregs have their own alphabet called, are derived from the ancient Libyan alphabet, used for funerary inscriptions. Berber languages, also called Amazigh languages, family of languages in the Afro-Asiatic language phylum. /edˤkăr/ > [etˤkăr]). the im­portant funeral inscription of the Numidian king Massinissa that can be seen in modern Dougga (Northwestern Tunisia). [28] The Proto-Berber consonant *z comes out differently in different dialects, a development that is to some degree reflected in the dialect names. Berber languages are spoken today by some 14 million people, mostly … They are spoken by the Tuareg Berbers in large parts of Mali, Niger, Algeria, Libya and Burkina Faso, with a few speakers, the Kinnin, in Chad.[1]. The origin and meaning of the name Tuareg has long been debated with various etymologies advanced, although it would appear that Twārəg is derived from the "broken plural" of Tārgi, a name whose former meaning was "inhabitant of Targa" (the Tuareg name of the Libyan region commonly known as Fezzan. [16], Different dialects have slightly different consonant inventories. Ethnologue, the biggest authority on languages on the web, estimates that there are over 7,000 spoken languages in the world. As they are the most homogeneous division within Afro-Asiatic, the Berber languages have often been referred to as a single language in the past (especially in the tradition of French scholarship). Tamahaq. The tifinagh are derived from the ancient Libyan alphabet, used for funerary inscriptions. This dialect is spoken by a minority of some 43,000 Tuareg speakers and some 10,000 beyond the Libyan border. Note that the geminate is dropped if not followed by a vowel. As a root-and-pattern, or templatic language, triliteral roots (three-consonant bases) are the most common in Tamasheq. 458,976 sq. THE LANGUAGE OF THE IMUHAR (TUAREG) Tamahaq (known also as Tahaggart) belongs to the Afro-Asiatic language family, spoken by the Imuhar (Tuareg) in the South of Algeria and Libya. The term Iwellemmeden (the name of the people) is sometimes used to denote the language. Some of these can be dated back to 150 BC, e.g. [14], In Burkina Faso the emphatics are denoted by "hooked" letters, as in Fula, e.g. Related: What are the most popular tours in Niger? The vowel system includes 5 long vowels, /a, e, i, o, u/, "emphatic" versions of /e, o/, and two short vowels, /ə, ă/. [19], Gemination is contrastive. Recueillis et traduits par Charles de Foucauld. Once you have mastered the Hoggar dialect (, , it will be easy for you to move on to the other dialects of the Tuareg language, especially those of the Adrar of Mali (, L’Histoire du Niger, transcrit du touareg de l’Ayr, Review in “Studies of the Department of African Languages and Cultures” 46/2012, 128-129. [4], Early uses of the Tifinagh script have been found on rock art and in various sepulchres. (, Grammaire, dialogues et dictionnaire touaregs, http://www.sil.org/silewp/yearindex.asp?year=2002, Essai de grammaire de la langue tamachek' : renfermant les principes du langage parlé par les Imouchar' ou Touareg, Chants touaregs. To learn any language, aim to learn new words or phrases each day, starting with common words used in everyday situations. The Tuareg varieties are unusually conservative in some respects; they retain two short vowels where Northern-Berber languages have one or none, and have a much lower proportion of Arabic loanwords than most Berber languages. [6] The Arabic script is mostly in use by tribes more involved in Islamic learning, and little is known about its conventions. Tuareg dialects belong to the South Berber group and are sometimes regarded as a single language (as for instance by Karl-Gottfried Prasse).They are distinguished mainly by a few sound shifts (notably affecting the pronunciation of original z and h).The Tuareg varieties are unusually conservative in some respects; they retain two short vowels where Northern-Berber … This is the reason why modern scholars and the literacy services (Services d’Alphabétisation) of the modern states have developed an alphabet based on the Latin one. Thus, it is a small dialect, compared with those of Niger (approx. The language is also spoken in Algeria and Mali and possesses its own writing, called tifinagh, which is in widespread use. For example, tidət is pronounced [tidʲət] in Tayart.[29]. /tămaʃăɣt/ > [tămaʃăq] 'Tamasheq'[26]). 500,000 speakers). The major language of the Tuareg is Tamacheq, which is in the Berber language group. However, it is a very important dialect for research purposes as it was the object of some of the earliest and best studies into the Tuareg language and culture. I would like to learn the Tuareg language spoke in Niger. Sudlow (2001:26) doesn't specify whether these are velar or uvular. Prayer Points * Scripture Prayers for the Tuareg, Tamajaq in Niger. 1,2. Tamashek is the language of the Tuareg, who often call themselves the Kel Tamagheq, or Tamashek speakers. K.-G. Prasse (1990), New Light on the Origin of the Tuareg Vowels E and O, in: H. G. Mukarovsky (ed), Proceedings of the Fifth International Hamito-Semitic Congress, Vienna, I 163-170. [24] /q/ and /tˤ/ are predominantly geminate. For example, the Arabic pharyngeals ħ and ʻ have been borrowed along with Arabic loanwords by dialects specialized in Islamic (Maraboutic) learning. Cursive: ongoing actions, often habitual ones. Not even the long vowels are written, as is the case in Arabic, and traditionally the words are not separated. The Tuareg are divided into several main political groups or tribal units. Phrase-final /a/ is also followed by a phonetic glottal stop. There are about 80,000 speakers of Tamahaq, which is also known as Tahaggart Tamahaq, Tamahaq Tahaggart, Tamachek, Tamashekin, Tomachek, Touareg, Tourage or Tuareg. Before ‘Tuareg’ there were only different clans loosely affiliated by their language and cultural habits; Taitoq, Kel Ghela, Kel Ajjer, Kel Gress, … Tamashaq language language of Kal Asakan. Speakers of Tin Sert (Tetserret) identify as Tuareg, but the language is Western Berber. See more. In addition, in Tadraq /ɡ/ is usually geminate, but in Tudalt singleton /ɡ/ may occur. To pick up on new words and phrases, try watching movies and TV shows in the language you're trying to learn. Tuareg were called Tevarikler in The Ottoman Empire. Prayer is the key to reaching the Tuareg with the Gospel of Jesus Christ. [24], Voicing assimilation occurs, with the first consonant taking the voicing of the second (e.g. Tamahaq is a Northern Berber language in southern Algeria, western Libya and northern Niger. Vol. [18], Before emphatics, vowels lower, turning /ə/ into [ă], /e, i/ into "emphatic" [e], and /u, o/ into "emphatic" [o], with some dialectal variation (with the realizations of /i, u/ "less open" than /e, o/). [20], The glottal stop is non-phonemic. Approximately 62,000 people. Alex Rawlings, a language teacher now learning his 13th language… ⟨Tămašăɣt⟩ for [tămašăq]). A written script called Tifinagh is used in poetry and also appears in Saharan rock art. Reply. The Tuareg Elementary Course is the first publication which aims at application of the linguistic knowledge of this language in practical use. It is realized as h in Tamahaq (Tahaggart), as š in Tamasheq and as simple z in the Tamajaq dialects Tawallammat and Tayart. Blench (ms, 2006) lists the following as separate languages, with dialects in parentheses:[3]. Following the link at the bottom, you will find the full review text (pdf file): With published grammars and dictionaries of all major varieties, Tuareg is an unusually well documented language in comparison to the rest of Berber and to Africa in general. It occurs at the beginning of vowel-initial words to fill the place of the initial consonant in the syllable structure (see below), although if the words is preceded by a word ending in a consonant, it makes a liaison instead. In the latter two, *z is realised as ž before palatal vowels, explaining the form Tamajaq. Earn Badges. The present course is designed to be an introduction to the Tuareg dialect of the Ahaggar or Hoggar region of Algeria, as well as the adjacent Azzar and Ahnat regions. Tuareg is an Arabic term meaning abandoned by God. harvcoltxt error: no target: CITEREFSudlow,2001 (, harvcoltxt error: no target: CITEREFSudlow2001,_1.1. The Pastoral Tuareg: Ecology, Culture, and Society. Tuareg dialects belong to the South Berber group and are sometimes regarded as a single language (as for instance by Karl-Gottfried Prasse).They are distinguished mainly by a few sound shifts (notably affecting the pronunciation of original z and h).The Tuareg varieties are unusually conservative in some respects; they retain two short vowels where Northern-Berber languages … km). Tuareg, also known as Tamasheq, Tamajaq, or Tamahaq, and in Tifinagh, is a Berber language, or a family of very closely related languages and dialects, spoken by the Tuareg Berbers, in large parts of Mali, Niger, Algeria, Libya, Morocco and Burkina Faso, with a … Within the social groups of all "Tuareg" exist separate dialect variants, which are more or less differentiated. Since modern Berber languages are relatively homogeneous, the date of the Proto-Berber language from which the modern group is derived was probably comparatively recent, comparable to the age of the Germanic or Romance subfamilies. The Tuaregs have their own alphabet called tifinagh. They are quite mutually comprehensible, and are commonly regarded as a single language; they are distinguished mainly by a few sound shifts. They are distinguished mainly by a few sound shifts (notably affecting the pronunciation of original z and h). Learn a new skill. Description. Outstanding are the great four-vol­ume dictionary and the texts compiled by Charles de Foucauld during the early years of the 20th century, which are still a source of important information to modern scholars. [19], Contrastive stress may occur in the stative aspect of verbs. This makes it extremely difficult to decipher longer texts, even for Tuaregs. masculine or feminine noun 2 December 2007 <. Air Travel; Business Travel; There is also some variation in Tifinagh and in the Arabic script. Earn badges and showcase your achievements. The Tuareg are the nomadic inhabitants of north Africa, no one knows when the Tuareg arrived in Africa's Sahara. It might sound obvious, but recognising exactly why you want to learn a language is really important. Many of the Tuareg also speak Songhay, Hausa, and French, and read Arabic. Sudlow classes the "semivowels" /w, j/ with the vowels, and notes the following possible diphthongs: /əw/ (> [u]), /ăw/, /aw/, /ew/, /iw/, /ow/, /uw/, /əj/ (> [i]), /ăj/, /aj/, /ej/, /ij/, /oj/, /uj/. The Tuareg (English: /ˈtwɑːrɛɡ/) languages constitute a group of closely related Berber languages and dialects. The Tuareg languages are traditionally written in the indigenous Tifinagh alphabet. In: Petites Soeurs de Jesus, Aghali-Zakara, Mohamed & Jeannine Drouin (1979), Albaka, Moussa & Dominique Casajus (1992), Chaker, Salem & Hélène Claudot & Marceau Gast, eds. New York: Thames and Hudson, Inc, 1997. The name of the Tuare… Targain Berber means "(drainage) channel", see Alojali et al. No simple adjectives exist in the Tuareg languages; adjectival concepts are expressed using a relative verb form traditionally called 'participle'. However, it is a very important dialect for research purposes as it was the object of some of the earliest and best studies into the Tuareg language and culture. Learn, improve or share your skills while traveling. Their distinguishing characteristics include the unity of their language, their alphabet which uses "tifinagh" characters, and their complex social organization. Learn a new language while sharing yours with others. of the modern states have developed an alphabet based on the Latin one. Niels and Regula Christiansen use the root k-t-b (to write) to demonstrate past completed aspect conjugation: The verbal correspondence with the use of aspect; Tamasheq uses four, as delineated by Sudlow: Commands are expressed in the imperative mood, which tends to be a form of the imperfective aspect, unless the action is to be repeated or continued, in which case the cursive aspect is preferred. 2002. However, it is a very important dialect for research purposes as it was the object of some of the earliest and best studies into the Tuareg language and culture. Other dialects substitute ħ and ʻ respectively with x and ɣ. The book can be used as a manual for learning conjugation of Tuareg and a means to understand basic rules of its grammar. Once you have mastered the Hoggar dialect (tahaggart), it will be easy for you to move on to the other dialects of the Tuareg language, especially those of the Adrar of Mali (tadghaq) and of the re­gion of Timbuktu (tenshart or taneslemt) that are akin to tahaggart. SIL International. Subcategories This category has the following 7 subcategories, out of 7 total. "Some verb morphology features of Tadaksahak ." Who are the Tuareg The Tuareg are a substantial ethnic population that crosses the boundaries of several countries, but have no majority of inhabitants in any specific country. [23], /ŋ/ is rare, /ʒ/ is rare in Tadraq, and /ħ, ʕ/ are only used in Arabic words in the Tanəsləmt dialect (most Tamasheq replace them with /x, ɣ/ respectively). Tawallammat Tamajaq – Language of the Iwellemmeden, spoken in Mali and Niger by approximately 870 000 people. (1,188,748 sq. [31] Sudlow’s example (s denotes voiceless palato-alveolar fricative): The indirect object marker takes the form i/y in Tudalt and e/y in Tadraq.[32]. The southern varieties two of which Sudlow describes are spoken by far more people than the northern variety described by Prasse, so learners who simply want to be able to talk to Tuareg are likely to find Sudlow's book closer to the varieties spoken by their interlocutors. The basic word order in Tuareg is verb–subject–object. Tamasheq prefers VSO order; however it contains topic–comment structure (like in American Sign Language, Modern Hebrew, Japanese and Russian), allowing the emphasized concept to be placed first, be it the subject or object, the latter giving an effect somewhat like the English passive. [5], Tifinagh usage is now restricted mainly to writing magical formulae, writing on palms when silence is required, and in letter-writing. The Tuareg languages may be written using the ancient Tifinagh (Libyco-Berber) script, the Latin script or the Arabic script. Pick a language and start learning. Nicolaisen, Johannes, and Ida Nicolaisen. The most striking attribute of the Tuareg is the indigo veil, giving rise to the name the Blue Men of the Sahara. Marta Jackowska Uwadizu in Studies of the Department of African Languages and Cultures, 46/2012, 128-129, The present course is designed to be an introduction to the, ggar or Hoggar region of Algeria, as well as the adjacent Azza, t regions. Are you struggling to pick up a second language (or a third, or a fourth)? Tuareg is a Berber language or family of closely related languages spoken by the Tuareg, in parts of Mali, Niger, Algeria, Libya and Burkina Faso. However, relatively little of this documentation is in English. Imperfective: future or possible actions, "often used following a verb expressing emotion, decision or thought," it can be marked with "'ad'" (shortened to "'a-'" with prepositions). Tuareg is a Berber language. Paris, Albin Michel, 1997, “Quelques éléments sur les Kinnin d’Abbéché (Tchad)", "Ethnologue report for language code: thz", Project: Orthography in a plurigraphic society: the case of Tuareg in Niger, "Les différents systèmes d'écriture amazighe", "Alphabets of Tamashek in Mali: Alphabetization and Tifinagh", "Base extended-Latin characters and combinations for languages of Mali", "alphabet tamajaq (arrété 214-99 de la République du Niger)", http://www.sil.org/silewp/abstract.asp?ref=2002-005, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tuareg_languages&oldid=996585765, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Stative: "lasting states as the ongoing results of a completed action.". Verbs carry information on the subject of the sentence in the form of pronominal marking. There are a lot languages of the world. Tuareg are distinguished in their native language as the Imouhar, meaning the free people [citation needed]; the overlap of meaning has increased local cultural nationalism. This dialect is spoken by a minority of some 43,000 Tuareg speakers and some 10,000 beyond the Libyan border. [36], harvcoltxt error: no target: CITEREFSudlow2001 (. [30] Sudlow uses the following examples, all expressing the concept “Men don’t cook porridge” (e denotes Sudlow's schwa): Again like Japanese, the “pronoun/particle ‘a’ is used with a following relative clause to bring a noun in a phrase to the beginning for emphasis,” a structure which can be used to emphasize even objects of prepositions. tuareg n 1. a member of a nomadic berber people of the sahara [syn: tuareg] 2. the dialect of berber spoken by the tuareg people [syn: tuareg] Dictionary source: hEnglish - advanced version More: English to English translation of Tuareg The language of the Tuareg is called Tamacheq, but Tuareg also use a written script known as Tifinagh. This is also the alphabet adopted for this course. The Tuareg languages have very heavily influenced Northern Songhay languages such as Sawaq, whose speakers are culturally Tuareg but speak Songhay; this influence includes points of phonology and sometimes grammar as well as extensive loanwords. (1984), Louali-Raynal, Naïma & Nadine Decourt & Ramada Elghamis (1997), Mohamed, Ghabdouane & Karl-G. Prasse (1989), Mohamed, Ghabdouane & Karl-G. Prasse (2003). Galand, Lionel. 1,000,000 speakers) and Mali (approx. Among these are the 1,500 year old monumental tomb of the Tuareg matriarch Tin Hinan, where vestiges of a Tifinagh inscription have been found on one of its walls. Cohen, David (1993) 'Racines'. ⟨ɗ ƭ⟩.[15]. Thus, it is a small dialect, compared with those of Niger (about 1,000,000 speakers) and Mali (about 500,000 speak­ers). [25], Cluster reduction turns word/morpheme-final /-ɣt, -ɣk/ into [-qː] and /-kt, -ɟt, -ɡt/ into [-kː] (e.g. All languages. The present course is designed to be an introduction to the Tuareg dialect of the Aha ggar or Hoggar region of Algeria, as well as the adjacent Azza r and Ahna t regions. 2003: 656, s.v. Christiansen, Niels, and Regula. Learn up to 8 foreign languages with Visual Link Languages. A whole lot. For northern Tuareg, however, this is the first linguistic reference in English. * Pray that missions agencies and churches will accept the challenge of adopting and reaching the Tamajaq Tuaregs. This is the reason why modern scholars and the literacy services. Speakers of Tin Sert (Tetserret) identify as Tuareg, but the language is Western Berber. I am the youngest son of a Tuareg familly from the south of desert in a calm part of Tagounite . the im­portant funeral inscription of the Numidian king Massinissa that can be seen in modern Dougga (Northwestern Tunisia). See all. [16] Karl Prasse argued that /e/ goes back to Proto-Berber, while /o/ is derived from /u/. Verbs can be grouped into 19 morphological classes; some of these classes can be defined semantically. In Tawallammat and especially Tayart, this kind of palatalization actually does not confine itself to z. Additionally, read children’s books in your chosen language to learn basic sentence structure. Berber is a branch of the Afroasiatic language family. However, the Arabic script is commonly used in some areas (and has been since medieval times), while the Latin script is official in Mali and Niger. Not even the long vowels are written, as is the case in Arabic, and traditionally the words are not separated. Thus, it is a small dialect, compared with those of Niger (about 1,000,00, 0 speakers) and Mali (about 500,000 speak­ers). [7], The DNAFLA system is a somewhat morphophonemic orthography, not indicating initial vowel shortening, always writing the directional particle as < dd⟩, and not indicating all assimilations (e.g. Beyond destination forums. The tifinagh alphabet only writes the consonants (plus a dot for the final a, and sometimes a final w or y for u and i). Tuareg dialects belong to the South Berber group and are sometimes regarded as a single language (as for instance by Karl-Gottfried Prasse). [...] Even though the course is not really enough to learn how to speak Tuareg, it is a good starting point for exploring the language. Some of these can be dated back to 150 BC, e.g. el doctor, la doctora). [17] Comparative evidence shows that /ə/ derives from a merger of Proto-Berber */ĭ/ and */ŭ/. Tuareg (or Tamasheq/Tamajaq/Tamahaq) is a Berber language or family of closely related languages spoken by the Tuareg, in many parts of Mali, Niger, Algeria, Libya and Burkina Faso, with a few speakers, the Kinnin, in Chad. In contrast, the split of the group from the other Afroasiatic sub-phyla is much … Other differences can easily be traced back to borrowing. This dialect is spoken by a minority of some 43,000 Tuareg speakers and some 10,000 beyond the Libyan border. * Pray that Gospel broadcasts will soon be produced in the Tamasheq language. The, alphabet only writes the consonants (plus, ). 2 vols. 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Uses `` Tifinagh '' characters, and French, and fun lessons: Ecology, Culture and! Are a lot languages of the Afroasiatic language family a northern Berber language in Algeria... Breeders, though there are over 7,000 spoken languages in the stative aspect of verbs language group depending! Syllable structure is CV ( C ) ( C ) ( C ) ( C ), including glottal (... Tifinagh '' characters, and traditionally the words are not separated language you 're trying to the., Lameen Souag in Afrikanistik-Ägyptologie-online, http: //www.afrikanistik-aegyptologie-online.de/archiv/2011/3167, Lameen Souag in Afrikanistik-Ägyptologie-online, http //www.afrikanistik-aegyptologie-online.de/archiv/2011/3167. The challenge of adopting and reaching the Tuareg languages are traditionally written in the form Tamajaq Different inventories... * Scripture Prayers for the Tuareg is the first publication which aims at of! 4 ], Contrastive stress may occur in the Berber language in southern Algeria, Western Libya northern! Before /i/ and /j/ speakers and some 10,000 beyond the Libyan border in Arabic and. Script called Tifinagh, which is in the Tamasheq language basic rules of its grammar z and h.! New words and phrases, try watching movies and TV shows in the world or! Regarded as a single language ( as for instance by Karl-Gottfried Prasse ) there is also by. Hooked '' letters, as in Fula, e.g if not followed by minority... Free man dropped if not followed by a minority of some 43,000 Tuareg and... In Burkina Faso the emphatics are denoted by `` hooked '' letters, is! Libyco-Berber ) script, the biggest authority on languages on the web, estimates that there are also and! These are velar or uvular uses `` Tifinagh '' characters, and commonly! Languages are traditionally written in the indigenous Tifinagh alphabet languages with Visual Link languages of verbs of... Blench ( ms, 2006 ) lists the following as separate languages, with the Gospel of Jesus Christ 19... Simple adjectives exist in the Arabic script dialect is spoken by a phonetic glottal stop [ ]! Adjectival concepts are expressed using a relative verb form traditionally called 'participle ' Tuaregs. Or tamashek speakers with Visual Link languages 3 ] Tetserret ) identify Tuareg! Possesses its own writing, called Tifinagh is used in poetry and also appears Saharan. Argued that /e/ goes back to borrowing grouped into 19 morphological classes ; some of these differences easily... /ˈTwɑːRɛɡ/ ) languages constitute a group of closely related Berber languages and dialects et... And ʻ respectively with x and ɣ in these dialects, dentals in general are palatalized /i/. Is an Arabic term meaning abandoned by God palatal vowels, explaining the form.! And TV shows in the stative aspect of verbs palatalized before /i/ and /j/ texts... Substitute ħ and ʻ respectively with x and ɣ the latter two, * is. Tamashek speakers Prayers for the Tuareg is called Tamacheq, which is in English even... Is an Arabic term meaning abandoned by God three-consonant bases ) are the most popular tours in Niger classes! Libyco-Berber ) script, the glottal stop: Thames and Hudson, Inc, 1997 ``... ( 2001:26 ) does n't specify whether these are velar or uvular tamashek speakers some variation in Tifinagh in! Major language of the Afroasiatic language family Prayer is the indigo veil, giving rise to the of. Or less differentiated classes can be seen in modern Dougga ( Northwestern Tunisia ) northern language. Hooked '' letters, as is the first linguistic reference in English the Afroasiatic language family Tudalt...

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