The seals they used, the stone slabs they used for weight and measure purposes and articles of merchandise for import and export are strong pointers to their trade and commerce. INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION Shubham, Nimish, Nihar, Shivangi, Gopinath 2. Besides food was supplied … The civilization was first identified in 1921 at Harappa in the Punjab region and then in 1922 at Mohenjo-daro (Mohenjodaro), near the Indus River in the Sindh (Sind) region. Its extent reached as far south as the Gulf of Khambhat and as far east as the Yamuna (Jumna) River. In the Harappan civilization the elaborate social structure and the standard of living must have been maintained by a highly developed system of communication and trade. These made them prosperous and opened for them the avenues of a comfortable life. Prohibited Content 3. Harappan Civilization, also known as Indus Valley Civilization, had flourished across the area of the North-Western part of the Indian subcontinent around 2500 BC. Stone-slabs used as weights and of varying weights have been recovered to indicate their use. With modern technology, scientific explorers have been able to gain significant insights. Lothal (IPA: [loˑt̪ʰəl]) was one of the southernmost cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, located in the Bhāl region of the modern state of Gujarāt.Construction of the city began around 2200 BCE. to make their life happy, healthy and prosperous is known as civilization.This note includes the information about the civilization of Indus valley including their major cities, societies and the economic condition. of settlements in the Indus civilization: cities, towns, and villages. A variety of articles were manufactured in Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro for purposes of domestic consumption. The prosperity of the Harappan Civilization, that was discovered in 1920-22 when two of its most important sites were excavated, was based on its flourishing economic activities such as agriculture, arts and crafts, and trade. The ruins and various evidence of Harappa and Mahenjo-daro reveal a great deal about social and economic life of the people of Indus valley. On examination of the skulls and bones discovered during excavation it is said that the people were either Dravidians or a branch of Indo-Aryans. How far trade supplied basic essentials such as food, and how far it was simply a means of obtaining luxury goods, are questions of importance. The Harappan granary proves the point that grains were brought over to it from nearby villages for storage and sale at the appropriate time. 1. Food: Specimens of wheat and barley show that they were cultivated in that region. Some other scholars are of opinion that they were from the same stock of the Sumerians or the Cretans. Agriculture and Animal Husbandry: In the mature Harappan … The discovery of Harappa in 1829 CE was the first indication that any such civilization existed in India, and by that time, Egyptian hieroglyphics had been deciphered, Egyptian and Mesopotamian sites excavated, and cuneiform would soon be translated by the scholar George Smith (l. 1840-1876 CE). The industrial know-how of the Harappan people was unique. The Indus cities also traded with Sumeria. The Indus River Valley Civilization, also known as Harappan civilization, developed the first accurate system of standardized weights and measures, some as accurate as to 1.6 mm. Given below is a detailed account of their industry. The food of the Harappan people was supplied from extensive areas cultivated in vicinity of the city. Search . India - India - The Indus civilization: While the Indus (or Harappan) civilization may be considered the culmination of a long process indigenous to the Indus valley, a number of parallels exist between developments on the Indus River and the rise of civilization in Mesopotamia. Wheat and barley were the main crops grown besides sesame, mustard and cotton. The current village of Harappa is less than 1 km from the ancient site. It is evident from the discovery of the Indus seals in these areas. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. This is unique to the earthenware of Lothal. In deed the town-planning of Harappan culture was highly modem and dignified. The Harappan Civilization is a path-breaking discovery that relates us to the Ancient India’s way of living and lifestyle. The horse was not known to the Harappan. Trade-links with Afghanistan and Central Asia by land and with Mesopotamia by maritime trade reveal a close reciprocity. In fact the whole period of the Harappan Civilazation is divided into three distinct phases: The social and economic life of the people of Indus Valley Civilization (Harappan Civilization) was systematic and organised. ; It is one of the oldest and greatest civilizations of mankind. The cart was drawn either by bullocks or by men. TOS 7. While earthenware of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappan reveal the old style, that of Lothal is primarily modem. Big wide roads and lighting system speak of their healthy civic life. Seldom is seen such modem method of drainage in any other ancient civilization. Create your own unique website with customizable templates. It flourished from around 2500 BC to 1750 BC. Trade and business grew as a result of close inter-action between the town and its sub-urban villages. Extensive trade relations with Mesopotamia is proved through the discovery of Harappan seals from Mesopotamian towns like Susa and Ur and the Harappan script from its seals at Nipur along with the picture of an imaginary unicorn. It is also referred to as Harappan Civilization owing to the fact that this civilization was first discovered in 1921 at the modern site of Harappa situated in the Punjab province Punjab of current day Pakistan. They knew how to prepare metallic objects after melting the metal. Extensive trade-contacts were established by the Harappan people with such Indian areas as Sind, Punjab, Rajasthan, Rupar, Lothal, Kalibangan and areas where the Harappan culture was prevalent. The Indus cities were built on an uniform plan. Looking at one early civilization, the Indus Valley Civilization, offers insights about early urban life. The archaeologist George F. Dales, who excavated at Mohenjo-daro in 1964, and hydrologist Robert L. Raikes propose a theory around the decline of the Indus civilization which involves large flooding and a back-up of the Indus for perhaps a century in ancient times. Besides these, the diet of the people consisted of fruits, vegetables, fish, milk … Ornaments were also made of ivory, horn and bronze, particularly the combs and hair pin. people had a trade link with Western Asia. Civic Planning was advanced and sophisticated. They followed a system of centralized administration. In most cases, the earthenware were painted with pictures of comb, tooth, creepers, leaves, cowrie and small circles. Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro were principal trading centres. These sites, each of which measures more than 3 mi (5 km) in circumference, were once great urban centers, the chief cities of the Indus civilization. Many earthen toy-carts for children have been found. Mesopotamia is regarded as the cradle of civilization because it saw the beginning of human settlement in an organized society. The urban settlements and great civilization has been ignored by the historian for too long. The domestic articles used by the Indus people and the comfortable houses in which they lived show prosperity of the Indus people. The Indus Valley civilization is also known as the Harappan Civilization after the village named Harappa, in what is now Pakistan, where the civilization was first discovered. The Harappan civilization was located in the Indus River valley. The Vedic Civilization was the culture and traditions of the society prevalent during the Vedic age ( 1500- 600 BCE). How far trade supplied basic essentials such as food, and how far it was simply a means … There are similar indicators to show the trade-links with Egypt. The agriculture depended on rain-fed water. Plagiarism Prevention 4. Making of metal pots, weaving, metallic works and such other artifacts reveal their enviable artistry. Rakhigarhi, Rakhi Garhi (Rakhi Shahpur + Rakhi Khas), is a village in Hisar District in the state of Haryana in India, situated 150 kilometers to the northwest of Delhi.It is the site of a pre-Indus Valley Civilisation settlement going back to about 1600 BCE.Later, it was also part of the mature Indus Valley Civilisation, dating to 2600-1900 BCE. Town planning is the unique feature of Indus valley civilization. Equally significant was their exchange-system in trade and commerce. The economic condition of the Harappan people was quite good. Town planning was amazing in nature. They stitched with needles of bone and bronze. Food. The copper piece recovered from Lothal indicates that they had a mode and medium of exchange. rice, maize, cotton and various vegetables in their fields. Ornament making was their technical forte. The ruins and various evidence of Harappa and Mahenjo-daro reveal a great deal about social and economic life of the people of Indus valley. They knew the use of wheel. Search form. Besides ivory works, combs and pearls were exported to West Asia from the Indus cities. The ruins of Mohenjo-daro were designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1980.. The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilisation in the northwestern regions of South Asia, lasting from 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE, and in its mature form from 2600 BCE to 1900 BCE. The excellence in art and craft is proved by fine ornaments, stone and copper implements and the potters. Urban Cities: The Indus civilization flourished around cities. It could also be argued, however, that the substantial Early Harappan walled towns constituted cities. Important aspects of social, economic and religious life . This name is inaccurate. On the latter were painted images of birds and decorative designs of creepers. It stretches to a length of 219 metres and is 37 metres wide. "Ancient India - Indus Valley Civilization in the TimeMaps World History Timeline. The Indus valley population consisted of Australoid, Mediterranean, Mongoloid and Alpine races. The approximate population of Mohenjo-Daro was 35000. One of the hallmarks of the Indus civilization was the establishment of outposts beyond the main area of Harappan settlement, designed to control the produce of key regions. It is time to unearth the mysteries, myths and ignorance about the great Harappa of the Indus Valley Civilization The cart was the principal vehicle of transport and trade by land. India; History of India; The Harappan Civilization ; தமிழில் படிக்க. Harappan Civilization. How did the Indus civilization end? The weight and measure was done with stone- slabs of varying sizes. Gold from Kashmir and copper and tin from Rajasthan were also brought over here. Through trade and commerce they, too, were able to establish contacts with others inside India and outside. They conducted their trade by both land and sea routes. This chapter provides a summary of the broad contours of urban life toward the end of the Holocene, with a focus on cultural processes in three phases of the Harappan culture, Early, Mature, and Late Harappan periods. Cities of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa were differentiated from other settlements by the large size of their population, complexity of social and economic life, diversity of craft production, and existence of some kind of political authority. They were busy in manufacturing many articles and each of their handiworks reveals an exquisite artistry. In 2001, archaeologists studying the remains of two men from Mehrgarh, Pakistan, discovered that the people of the Indus Valley Civilisation, from the early Harappan periods, had knowledge of proto- dentistry. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. The discovery of Harappa in 1829 CE was the first indication that any such civilization existed in India, and by that time, Egyptian hieroglyphics had been deciphered, Egyptian and Mesopotamian sites excavated, and cuneiform would soon be translated by the scholar George Smith (l. 1840-1876 CE). These made them prosperous and opened for them the avenues of a comfortable life. The economic condition of the Harappan people was quite good. In this article we will discuss about the food, social Dress, ornaments, house hold articles, amusements, trade, social class and structure, religion and funerary customs of the people of Indus Valley Civilization. Harappa. Privacy Policy 8. Origin. Their seals reveal the images of tiger, bear, rhino etc. The social and economic life of the people of Indus Valley Civilization (Harappan Civilization) was systematic and organised. Adapt in trade, the Harappan people exported wheat, maize, other crops and cotton goods. The Vedic Aryans were meat eater having an aversion to fish, while the latter was an ordinary article of food of the Harappan people. Economic Life of Indus Valley Civilization – The Indus Valley Civilization of Harappan economy was based on irrigated surplus agriculture, cattle rearing, proficiency in various crafts and brisk trade. Introduction to Harappan Civilization. The Indus people used various types of weights and measures. In the Harappan civilization the elaborate social structure and the standard of living must have been maintained by a highly developed system of communication and trade. Report a Violation. For purposes of war and hunting they used bows and arrows, axe and lance prepared by them. Indus Valley people grew wheat, barley, melons, oils, dates, field peas, cotton, and possibly rice. Trade and commerce were well managed by the Harappan people. One foot was equal to almost 37.6 centimeters. Such a picture about their ornaments becomes clear from a study of many images recovered from various places. The earthenware were as artistic as they were useful. They, too, built images made of bronze. So, carts by land and boats and ships by river and sea were the main medium of transport of goods. On some were painted the pictures of peacock and sometimes, alternate rows of circles and squares running to five or six lines. Boats were used for trade through rivers and sea. The excellent drainage and sanitation systems are remarkable. Time Duration of Indus Valley Civilization: As revealed by Radio-Carbon this civilization thrived during 2500-1750 B.C. An Egyptian and Mesopotamian Contemporary The Indus Valley civilization (3300–1700 B.C.E.) This article has multiple issues. For self-defense, they made sword, shield, protective dress and head-gear. Since 1921 this civilization has been revealed by spectacular finds at Mohenjo-Daro, an archaeological site in NW Sind, and at Harappa, in central Punjab near the Ravi River. Their affluence was due to agriculture, animal husbandry, industry, trade and commerce. This chapter of the history study material & notes is meant to cover the essential and exam-worthy details of the ancient Vedic period. Burnt bricks were widely used for construction purpose. "TimeMaps Atlas of World History. It flourished from around 2500 BC to 1750 BC. The Indus people used copper and tin. Measuring by hand was also prevalent. The social and economic life of the people of Indus Valley Civilization (Harappan Civilization) was systematic and organised. The house-building, the Great Bath, granary and drainage speak of the developed mode of living of the people of Harappa. ; It is one of the oldest and greatest civilizations of mankind. Archaeological excavations of the Indus Valley Civilization, therefore, had a … Food The food of the Harappans was supplied from extensive areas cultivated in vicinity of the city. Tamil Search | English-Tamil Dictionary | Maps | Tamil Radio | Wikipedia | Books | Matrimonial| MP3 Songs | Aggregator. These strongly point to maritime trade. GK, General Studies, Optional notes for UPSC, IAS, Banking, Civil Services. This is also proved by the discovery of numerous Indus seals in Sumeria. The Indus valley population consisted of Australoid, Mediterranean, Mongoloid and Alpine races. The Harappan people domesticated many animals like cow, buffalo, sheep, elephant, camel, pig etc. The cylindrical seal recovered from Mohenjo-Daro substantiates to this. This was indeed a highly successful venture of the Harappan people and it embellished their affluence. The Harappan earthenware were smooth and glossy, resembling the earthenware recovered from Tel Asmar of Mesopotamia. Things produced by them were sufficient to meet the domestic demand and the craze for those in foreign markets as well. They had mastery over the proportionate weaving and stitching of inner and outer garments. It is also known as the Indus Civilization because two of its best-known cities, Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, are situated along the banks of the Indus River. Weaving was a principal occupation of the people. The approximate population of Mohenjo-Daro was 35000. Harappan Civilization, also known as Indus Valley Civilization, had flourished across the area of the North-Western part of the Indian subcontinent around 2500 BC. They did not know the use of iron. They also knew the use of sickle and used to cut crops with it. In 2001, archaeologists studying the remains of two men from Mehrgarh, Pakistan, made the discovery that the people of the Indus Valley Civilization, from the early Harappan periods, had knowledge of proto-dentistry. Armlets, ear-rings and nose-buds etc. Structure of the presentation Global civilization’s Timeline Introduction Excavations Phases oh Harappan civilization Town planning system Citadel Important cities of IVC Economic life End of civilization Beads recovered from Chanhudaro, Mohenjo-Daro and Lothal indicate their use in necklaces. Though exact details are not available, that they were not totally ignorant about the system of “exchange” that prevailed m’ ancient times is indicated from the hints about it in their seals and sealing process. An insufficient number of archaeological surveys has been carried out to date on Harappan Civilization cemeteries. Chains and necklaces, armlets, bracelets, rings and ear-rings were made for both men and women. They grew wheat. These included Manda, Ropar, and Kotia Nihang Khan in the north, located in the Himalayan foothills on the Chenab and Sutlej Rivers, near where each became navigable. Harappan Civilization is arguable the most advanced and maybe the oldest civilization in the ancient world. A developed base of industry prompted the Harappan people to naturally look for trade and commerce. Indus Valley Civilization pot from Harappan phase found at Quetta in Baluchistan, c. 2500-1900 BCE. Disclaimer 9. The discovery is not a result of a particular day but it is a conglomeration of various archaeological findings that has been discovered continuously since 19th century. Harappan people built an agricultural irrigation and fertility system based on the silt-bearing floods.A variety of crops were grown in this area. Rich people used gold instruments studded with jewels. They aimed themselves with an adequate variety of weapons for purposes of war with enemies, self-defence and hunting. N.p. Combs, ear-rings and ornaments were also made from ivory. The decimal system was also known to them. Harappa is the name of the ruins of an immense capital city of the Indus Civilization, and one of the best-known sites in Pakistan, located on the bank of the Ravi River in central Punjab Province.At the height of the Indus civilization, between 2600–1900 BCE, Harappa was one of a handful of central places for thousands of cities and towns covering a million square kilometers (about … The Harappan people were familiar with many precious stones like agate, carnelian, steatite, lapis lazuli, turquoise etc. If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked. With its help they made beautiful earthenware pots like cooking-pot, jug, plate, tray, perforated jars, cups and the like. Rice was also probably grown. Archaeological remains of a port are found at Lothal. 1. Length was measured in Ones. A manufacturing unit at Chanhudaro bears testimony to it. Kalibangan gives us the idea about their agriculture. 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