Remnants of the east, west, and north walls are visible. 1200 CE) occupation. Mound 25 at the Hopewell Earthworks is at the heart of what many archaeologists mean when they use the term Hopewell. Shetrone, H. C. "Explorations of the Hopewell Group of Prehistoric Earthworks," Ohio Archaeological and Historical Quarterly, Volume 35, 1-227, 1926. Atwater assumes the site had been built for defense. 1 It is not restricted to just park operating hours. They built earthen enclosures in the shapes of circles, squares, octagons, parallel lines, and other forms. It was an enormous culture with many local expressions that traded ideas and artifacts with each other over vast distances. Archeologists estimated that the walls were originally 35 feet wide at the base and enclosed an area of 111 acres. After the Hopewell people cremated the dead, they burned the charnel house. Today, the discovered artifacts are stored or displayed at the Ohio Historical Center in Columbus. These groups are the Central Plains Village culture known as the Steed-Kisker Phase. Mound City, located on Ohio Highway 104 is a group of 23 earthen mounds constructed by the Hopewell culture. The culture is referred to more as a system of interaction among a variety of societies than as a single society or culture. Bikes are only permitted on the bike path, not on the interpretive trail. Sites were located in Kansas and Missouri around the mouth of the Kansas River where it enters the Missouri River. Three of the seven mounds in the D-shaped enclosure are joined. The site contains Hopewell and Middle Mississippian remains. 1820: Caleb Atwater draws the first map of these earthworks. A smaller square enclosure with sides 850 feet long is connected to the east side of the parallelogram. 16062 State Route 104 Hopewell Cemetery Location Mound Valley, Labette County , Kansas , USA Show Map Museum of Anthropology 1340 jayhawk blvd. Huge ceremonial blades made of obsidian from Yellowstone National Park were discovered here. The Hopewell Indians were known as superior crafts­men who created some of the finest works of art in the prehistoric Americas. The largest of Adena’s burial mounds, standing at 62 feet high and is 240 feet in diameter, is thought to have been built over a period of 100 years or more. The Hopewell Exchange system began in the Ohio and Illinois river valleys about 300 BCE. It is however uncertain whether this culture developed locally when people adopted Hopewell traits, or if westward migrating Hopewell people brought it all with them.[2]. It is a multi-component site with Kansas City Hopewell (ca. A Marksville culture mound site, located in La Salle Parish, Loui… Hopewell culture probably originated in Illinois sometime between 500 BC and 300 BC and spread to Ohio where it reached its fluorescence. While most Hopewell complexes seem to have been used for less than two centuries, evidence suggests that Hopewell Mound Group remained an important ceremonial center throughout the entire era of the Hopewell Culture in Ohio, a period of about four hundred years! Read more about Unmanned Aircraft in the National Parks. What any of the various groups now defined as Hopewellian called themselves is unknown. Eventually, word spread about the intriguing phenomenon and archeologists arrived to study the earthwork and its burials. By this time, the only part of the earthworks left intact is the wall and adjacent ditch on the north side of the great enclosure. The mounds that were too large to plow were excavated to below ground level by archeologists in the early 1900’s and never reconstructed. https://www.nps.gov/hocu/learn/historyculture/hopewell-mound-group.htm The Hopewell culture, also called the Hopewell tradition, is an archeological era of Native Americans that flourished along rivers from the Atlantic Ocean to the eastern Great Plains, and from the Great Lakes region to the Gulf of Mexico. The name is derived from the Hopewell farm in Ross county, Ohio, where the first site—centring on a group … Hopewell Mound Group has a 2.5 mile interpretive trail and a portion of the Rails-To-Trails bike path. At this site, they built an enormous earthwork complex spanning about 130 acres. The Kansas City Hopewell were the farthest west regional variation of the Hopewell tradition of the Middle Woodland period (100 BCE – 700 CE). Therefore, the culture was named after this farm field, which happened to be owned by a gentleman named Mordecai Hopewell at the time. The parking area at the trailhead is located on Sulpher Lick road, just west of Maple Grove road and the North Fork Creek. There are 30 recorded Kansas City Hopewell sites. Early archeologists named the site for its owner, Mordecai C. Hopewell. From 28 Hopewell attractions, Yelp helps you discover popular restaurants, hotels, tours, shopping, and nightlife for your vacation. Wikimedia Commons/Nyttend Situated in southern Indiana, the area was discovered to be a treasure trove of ancient artifacts in 1988 when road construction crews damaged a mound. 1891-92: Warren Moorehead excavates to find artifacts for the 1893 “World’s Columbian Exposition” in Chicago. Get directions, maps, and traffic for Hopewell, KS. lawrence, ks 66045 tel. Sadly, the great earthen monuments of this sacred site are now all but invisible to the casual visitor’s eye. Although the origins of the Hopewell are still under discussion, the Hopewell culture can also be considered a cultural climax. Moorehead partially excavates several of the mounds, including about a quarter of the largest mound, Mound 25. The 300-acre Hopewell Mound Group is the type site for the Hopewell culture. Park grounds are open every day during daylight hours. Tejas > Caddo Fundamentals > Spiro and the Arkansas Basin The culture discovered at this site was new to the science of archeology in the late 1800’s. It is also known as the Biggs Site. It contains the most impressive burials, altars, and artifact deposits, in terms of both quantity and quality, of all of the Hopewell mounds, in Ohio and beyond. ... Crab Orchard culture, Fourche Maline culture, the Goodall Focus, the Havana Hopewell culture, the Kansas City Hopewell, the Marksville culture, and the Swift Creek culture. When the mounds were first discovered in the 1840s, they were located in a thick wooded area. 32146 North Missouri Route 122 660-886-7537 • MoStateParks.com This site contains restrooms and a covered picnic shelter. [5] After 500 CE until about 1000 CE, the (Late Woodland period), the Kansas City Hopewell culture changed and evolved into different cultures. Hopewell mounds. Check flight prices and hotel availability for your visit. Their original size is estimated to be 500 feet long, 180 feet wide, and 30 feet tall. Displays tell the history of the Otoe-Missouria, Osage, Delaware, Ioway, Ilini-Peoria, Kanza, Kickapoo, Sac and Fox, and Shawnee tribes. Ephraim Squier’s dramatic 1848 engraving (seen above) pictures this enormous triple peaked mound surrounded by the low earthen wall that formed a smaller D-shaped enclosure within the great enclosure. An earthen wall extended for over two miles, surrounding an immense sacred space that included 29 burial mounds. The site contains Hopewell and succeeding Middle Mississippianremains. In fact, the total amount of obsidian here was the largest ever found east of the Mississippi River. Hopewell trading networks were quite extensive, as has been found by the evidence of goods such as obsidian from the Yellowstone area, copper from Lake Superior, and shells from the Gulf Coast in locations distant from their origins. 1848: Ephraim Squier and Edwin Davis draw the most famous map of the site and include it in their groundbreaking work Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley, the first book ever published by the Smithsonian Institution. Two thousand years ago, people of an advanced culture gathered here to conduct religious rituals and ceremonies related to their society. Most of the mounds range in size from 20 to 300 feet in diameter. Hopewell, KS Directions {{::location.tagLine.value.text}} Sponsored Topics. After the exposition, all the artifacts are stored and displayed in Chicago’s newly created “Field Museum.” 2001: Using magnetometry, archeologists from the National Park Service and OSU find no evidence of long term settlement within the earthen walls. Two centuries of plowing gradually leveled the sloping earthen embankment walls until they are barely visible today. The people of this period started to live in small hamlets with two to three families and began to rely on more on agriculture. [3], The Renner Village Archeological Site in Riverside, Missouri is one of several sites near the junction of Line Creek and the Missouri River. Woodward, Susan L., and Jerry N. McDonald. They also discover a new 90-foot diameter circular earthwork within the great enclosure (the smaller circle on the map between Mounds 2 and 23). The Renner Village archeological sitein Riverside, Missouri, is one of several sites near the junction of Line Creek and the Missouri River. The Hopewell culture was the first pan-american culture that stretched from Kansas to New York, Canada to Florida from 200BC to 500AD. The Kansas City Hopewell peoples grew a variety of domesticated plants, including squash and marsh elder. There are two known Kansas City Hopewell sites in the Fort Osage Park. The Hopewell used these earthworks as ceremonial centers, social gathering places, trading posts, and places of worship. Paddlewheel of the Arabia located at the Arabia Steamboat Museum in Kansas City. The figure on the left is Wulfing plate A, one of Wulfing cache from Malden, Missouri. Paralleling the trail on the northwest side of the great enclosure, lies an intact, six-foot-high section of the original 2,000-year-old embankment wall. Radiocarbon dates indicate the mound was built at about the time the Hopewell culture was branching off from the Adena. T When Europeans first came to this area in the late 1700’s they were amazed to find so many giant earthworks in the Chillicothe area. The Kansas City Hopewell are believed to have migrated into this area from the eastern woodlands of the Ohio River valley, and cultural remains are especially common in the Kansas City region along the Missouri River. It flourished from about 200 bce to 500 ce chiefly in what is now southern Ohio, with related groups in Michigan, Wisconsin, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Pennsylvania, and New York. 1980: Archeologist Mark Seeman of Kent State University accurately relocates most of the mounds through aerial photography and surface survey. The figure on the right is from Spiro Mounds in Oklahoma, and the middle plate is from the Etowah Mounds in Georgia. The site was named after the Hopewell family who owned the site in the 1890s when the site was excavated. The Trowbridge site near Kansas City is close to the western limit of the Hopewell. Facilities at Hopewell Mound Group include restrooms, a picnic shelter and a two-mile self-guided interpretive trail. 100 to 500 CE) and Steed Kisker (ca. Unfortunately, this fabulous earthwork complex fell victim to the same fate that claimed nearly all of the many renowned earthwork complexes of southern Ohio. This is the largest known mound constructed by the Hopewell culture, and a remnant of it is visible today. Saved by The Encyclopedia of Ancient Giants in North America. The monumental architecture and artifacts of the Hopewell culture reflect a pinnacle of achievement in the fields of art, astronomy, mathematics and engineering, the likes of which was seldom seen again in eastern North America. The Mann Hopewell Site spans about 500 acres and consists of at least 20 mounds, making it the largest known Native American burial ground in the Hoosier State. 45601. The people of the Hopewell culture built immense structures, often out of earth, whose purpose remains a source of debate among archaeologists. An excavation was undertaken on the site by Knoles and the Kansas City Archaeological Society in the late 1960s. The Sibley Site was found in the 1960s by an amateur archaeologist, Claude Knoles. Please report violations to a ranger or by calling us or emailing us. The Eastern Woodland cultures built burial mounds for important people such as these of the Hopewell tradition in Ohio. [1], The sites are made up of distinctive pottery styles and impressive burial mounds containing stone vault tombs. It is part of a larger earthworks complex, the Portsmouth Earthworks, located across the Ohio River in Portsmouth, Ohio. The abundance and exquisite craftsmanship of the artifacts enthralls visitors at the exposition and the concept of the “Hopewell Culture” is born. It was a village site permanently inhabited from approximately 1 CE to 500 CE by peoples of the Kansas City Hopewell culture and through the Woodland period to 1200 CE by peoples of the Middle Mississippian culture. 1922-25: Henry Shetrone and William Mills of the Ohio Historical Society excavate all the mounds of what is now called “Hopewell Mound Group.” By this time, many of the mounds and the walls of the square have disappeared under the plow. The Middle Woodland Period was dominated by cultures of the Hopewell tradition (200-500 BCE). The mound group itself was named for the family who owned the earthworks at the time. The true tribal names of these people were lost over the millennia, but the ancient American Indians who built this sprawling structure were part of a cultural golden age that flourished in this region from A.D. 1 to 400. Hopewell culture, notable ancient Indian culture of the east-central area of North America. A vast trade network appears to have thrived during this period. The Kansas City Hopewell were the farthest west regional variation of the Hopewell tradition of the Middle Woodland period (100 BCE – 700 CE). All of these extraordinary features support the idea that Hopewell Mound Group was possibly the most important ceremonial center of all the earthworks in southern Ohio. See map below for layout of trail and parking lot access. Use the key on the below map to locate the other visible remnants of the Hopewell Mound Group earthworks. Legal. This site is accessible for visitors during daylight hours. The name "Hopewell" was applied by Warren K. Mooreheadafter his explorations of the Hopewell Mound Group in Ross County, Ohio, in 1891 and 1892. Mounds found on the farm of General Morde­cai Hopewell near Chillicothe, Ohio gave name to a civilization that thrived over 1500 years ago. 785.864.5243 Burial mounds and hand-dug earthworks show the site had been occupied since the 1400s. All sites and areas of Hopewell Culture National HIstorical Park (even parking lots) are included. Although the earthworks were mapped in the early 1800s by Caleb Atwater, excavations of the mounds were not formally started until the 1840s. None of the excavated mounds are reconstructed. Two earthworks features are located within the parallelogram, one circular and one D-shaped. From this Ohio and Illinois core, Hopewell influence was felt as far east as New York, as far south as Louisiana and northern Florida, and as far west as Kansas and Missouri. There are 30 recorded Kansas City Hopewell sites. The interpretive trail meanders past some of the site’s significant features. Astounding quantities of finely crafted art made of exotic materials were buried here as part of elaborate mortuary ceremonies. The Hopewell Studied since the discovery of the conspicuous mounds in This site is an intensively occupied Hopewell village on river terrace remnants. Hopewell Mound City group in Chillicothe, Ohio by the National Park Service. At the western edge of the Hopewell interaction sphere is the Kansas City Hopewell. Help. Sites were located in Kansas and Missouri around the mouth of the Kansas River where it enters the Missouri River. Many of the most famous images of the Hopewell culture are from the objects found at this site: the mica bird claw the copper bear paw, and the mica hand with its elongated fingers stretching upward. Newly described cultures are usually named after the place where they are first discovered. Traditionally, the appearance of pottery, mound burial, horticulture, storage features, and the bow-and-arrow have defined the Woodland period in the Central Great Plains. Indian Mounds of the Middle Ohio Valley: A Guide to Mounds and Earthworks of the Adena, Hopewell, Cole, and Fort Ancient People. [4], The Cloverdale archaeological site is situated at the mouth of a small valley that opens into the Missouri River Valley, near St.Joseph, Missouri. He names the earthworks “Clark Fort” after the owners of the farm field. This complex included the largest single earthen-walled enclosure constructed by the Hopewell – encompassing over 110 acres. The Tri-County Triangle Trail, a paved bike trail which traverses the site, runs for over thirty miles between Chillicothe and Washington Courthouse. The artifacts were often made of exotic materials not found in Ohio. The Hopewell culture left behind incredible mounds that appear to have been used for ceremonial purposes and burials. pp.264, "Trowbridge (14WY1) is an archaeological site located near Kansas City, Kansas", List of archaeological periods (North America), Hopewell Culture National Historical Park, Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kansas_City_Hopewell&oldid=964378553, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 25 June 2020, at 04:43. The current theories about Hopewell Mound Group and its builders are founded on the scientific conclusions of archeologists who have studied this site over nearly two centuries. Since this was the first scientific excavation of the earthworks, it was determined the builders were different from some of the other mounds found … [6], Archaeology of Native North America, 2010, Dean R. Snow, Prentice-Hall, New York. However, the conical-type Grave Creek Mound in Moundsville, West Virginia, is much larger. The general shape of the Hopewell Mound Group is a parallelogram 1,800 feet long on the east and the west sides and 2,800 feet long on the north and south. Chillicothe, OH Within its walls was the largest burial mound the Hopewell people ever built: Mound 25 was 500 feet long and 33 feet high. This was particularly salient in the Midwest and Southeast, where earthen Between A.D. 1 and A.D. 500, the people of the Hopewell culture "built a large and elaborate complex of earthen mounds, walls, ditches, and ponds in the southern flowing drainages of the Ohio River valley," wrote Mark Lynott, the former manager and su… Information on visiting the site today. Research suggests the Kansas City Hopewell culture originated due to a migration of people from the Lower Illinois Valley areas, or alternatively, developed in situ. 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