Critically examine the impact of land reforms on Indian economy and society. 0000000016 00000 n In their quest for economic development and industrialization, reformers attempt to make the rural sector more responsive to the needs of the industrial sector for labour, food, industrial raw materials, capital, and foreign currency. A key element that impacts upon the way in which land restoration is approached is whether land reform is market-driven, non-market driven or a combination of the two. 0000006022 00000 n Embedded in these expectations is the need for understanding the situation in reformed farms. The abolition of intermediaries has stopped exploitation. The proclaimed purposes of land reform, however, will be the point of departure in this article. These functions are often expected to be performed simultaneously. %PDF-1.4 %���� The reformers may proclaim certain objectives merely to appease the peasants, to undermine opposition, to win international backing, or to safeguard their own positions. These laws specify the acceptable forms of tenure and the privileges and responsibilities that go with them. Abolition of Jamindars and Jagirdars: The powerful Jamindars and Jagirdars have become inexistent. This papers assesses the overall impacts of the government’s Fast Track Land Reform Programme on the agricultural sector. The Land Reform programme in Zimbabwe has been a major area of international discussion for almost five years now; mainly due to the hitherto unprecedented approach taken by the government of Zimbabwe to address this very emotive issue. This study reviewed policies and literature on land reform, and analyzed beneficiary participation in reformed farms and the impact of land reform on land use in land restitution and land redistribution farms in the Waterberg District Municipality. This happens especially when the reformers are still in sympathy with the landlord class and consciously prefer a moderate rather than a radical reform. on land reform impacts has been at a highly aggregate level (state or district level) and failed to distinguish the types of reform with varying outcomes. Corrections? In addition, land reform has increasingly been used to encourage investments in rural areas to enable rural transformation  . The view that the land reform sector is inefficient was also contradicted by Dovring (I970) and Mueller (I970), both of which report favourably on the performance of the land reform sector in Mexico up to I960. 0000001148 00000 n Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. startxref The emotive quality of land policies evokes painful legacies fuelled by disappointments with the official land reform programme ushered in by the new Constitution of 1996. Concentration of Land with Big Landowners:. 121 0 obj <> endobj • Section 79 (A), (B) and (C), that regulated the ownership of agricultural land, have been deleted. It refers to an institutional measure directed towards altering the existing pattern of ownership, tenancy and management of land. Communist reformers, in contrast, usually aimed at overthrowing both feudalism and capitalism on the premise that, as a means of production, private ownership of land inherently breeds exploitation. A more immediate and practical goal of communist reformers was to rally the peasants in support of the new order and against the former regime. CHAPTER ONE. Another common objective is to free the peasants from subjugation to and dependence on the exploiters and make them active citizens by restoring what assertedly had been taken away from them. The concept of land reform has varied over time according to the range of functions which land itself has performed: as a factor of production, a store of value and wealth, a status symbol, or a source of social and political influence. Efforts have been made to encourage agricultural progress by means of agrarian reform in favour of the peasant who does not own his land or whose share of the crop is relatively small, and who therefore has little incentive to invest capital or expend effort to improve the land and raise productivity. The above effects may not be visible in the data over a longer horizon if there are ot… recently—in what can be called market-based land reform. Another mechanism has been to encourage labour-intensive cultivation, on the assumption that traditional or feudal landowners often use their land extensively and wastefully. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The land reform programme was described as illegal and a failure. These political objectives tend to undergo change during the period of implementation and are, therefore, kept vague enough to permit flexibility and modification as conditions change. The patterns of wealth and income distribution and of social and political influence are partly determined by the laws governing land tenure. Bank , Tim GB Hart , Human Sciences Research Council INTRODUCTION. High inflation resulted into health issues, education, and the shrinking of the national economy in general. Land reform has had a serious negative effect on the Zimbabwe's economy and heavily contributed to its collapse in the 2000s. There has been a significant drop in total farm output which has led to instances of starvation and famine. 0000002770 00000 n 0000005278 00000 n Evaluate the impact of Land reforms measures by the state governments in the early decades after independence. Please select which sections you would like to print: While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. 0000005766 00000 n 0000002734 00000 n Background of the Study; Statement of the Problem South Africa: The unknown impact of land reform More than two decades after the end of apartheid in South Africa, the unequal distribution of land remains. Emeritus Professor of Economics, University of California, Davis. The forms of tenure range from temporary, conditional holding to ownership in fee simple, which confers total unencumbered rights of control and disposal over the land. Omissions? Land reform, a purposive change in the way in which agricultural land is held or owned, the methods of cultivation that are employed, or the relation of agriculture to the rest of the economy. It is believed to allow previously unemployed people to participate in the economy and better the country's economic growth. 121 18 Therefore, reform aims at creating farms of optimum size given the land quality, the crop, and the level of technology. Reform is usually introduced by government initiative or in response to internal and external pressures, to resolve or prevent an economic, social, or political crisis. Land reform has resulted in a very di"erent farming sector, but one that is not without considerable entrepreneurial dynamism and productive potential. The weak record on the growth of corporate farming in … Land value reflects its relative scarcity, which in a market economy usually depends on the ratio between the area of usable land and the size of that area’s population. As the per capita land area declines, the relative value of land rises, and land becomes increasingly a source of conflict among economic and social groups within the community. During the British period, the agrarian and social structure tended to perpetuate a... 2. 0000000656 00000 n Transfer of land … Meaning of Land Reforms: Land reform is a broad term. • An amendment has been made to Section 63 of the Land Reforms Act which means that now, a family can own almost 200 acres of land. The reformer, in this case, will introduce and implement just enough reform to appease the peasants and contain the conflict. Because of land reforms the economic power of the land lords in the rural areas comes down. 0000008692 00000 n <<8dbc26d6df0dac48a028c725dd4493f4>]>> Abstract Land reform in countries with high levels of land inequality is seen by most development experts as an effective means of reducing poverty, since land enriches the asset portfolio of poor households (HHs) and carries with it the potential for agricultural production and entrepreneurship. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. IMPACT OF LAND REFORM ON LAND RIGHTS IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF CALABAR) TABLE OF CONTENTS. 0000004585 00000 n xref This piece reviews major literature on the importance of land and land reform processes in the developing world with more emphasis on the situation in Ghana. 123 0 obj<>stream The concentration of land in the hands of big landowners has not... 3. trailer The model, calibrated to pre-reform farm data from the Philippines, implies that on impact the land reform reduces average farm size by 34% and agricultural productivity by 17%. Land Reforms in India (Major Impacts) 1. Land Reform Programme in Zimbabwe: Disparity Between Policy Design and Implementation Medicine Masiiwa Institute of Development Studies University of Zimbabwe May 2004 Note: An adapted version of this paper appears in the edited collection Post Independence Land Reform in Zimbabwe, published in May 2004 by the Friedrich Ebert Stiftung in Harare. Changing over to Market Economy:. They try to create employment opportunities and education and health services and to redistribute the benefits to the community at large, the younger generation as the main target. Consistent with the antipoverty impact, we find that land reform has raised agricultural wages. The impact of post independent land reforms on the farm worker community can therefore be assessed in terms of how government has sought to address the three components of the land question: and how this has in turn impacted on policies that govern the working and living conditions of farm workers. 0000001515 00000 n They define the land title and the extent to which the owner can freely dispose of it and of the income accruing from its use. In order to deal effectively with this land reform policy and expropriation, policy makers need to establish strategies to fairly compensate those who are misplaced in order to increase opportunities and maintain development of the people. The most common proclaimed objective of land reform is to abolish feudalism, which usually means overthrowing the landlord class and transferring its powers to the reforming elite or its surrogates. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The President of Rwanda, Paul Kagame, has been the country's political leader since 1994, and regained power for a third term in 2017, winning with a stated 99 percent of the vote. Thus reform may be considered a problem-solving mechanism. An equally important economic objective is to promote optimum-scale farming operations. Finally, reform may be introduced simply as the most expedient way to resolve a crisis or avoid a revolution. This is the reason that land reforms got success either in socialistic countries, or in the strict ideological countries like Israel and India. 0000001365 00000 n Finally, reform aims at coordinating agriculture with the rest of the economy. But this depends upon how effective the land reforms are. A third objective is to create democracy—a stated purpose of both capitalist and, in the 20th century, communist reformers. 0000001232 00000 n x�b```f``z������� �� �@���q !�"�. The true motives for reform, however, may well differ from those announced by the reformer. The distinction between the real and proclaimed objectives may be especially significant if the proclaimed objectives have been forced upon reformers who do not support those objectives. The impact of land reform on growth also depends upon the type of land reform… Nurlan Almaganbetov was an IPF fellow from 2004-05 and he carried out extensive fieldwork in different parts of Kazakhstan in order to assess some of the impacts of recent land reforms. Instead of land reform creating a magnet for agricultural development, the program has hampered such growth. Land value reflects its relative scarcity, which in a market economy usually depends on the ratio between the area of usable land and the size of that area’s population. This essentially entails the acquisition of land by the government on the basis of the willing buyer–willing seller principle. If “foreigners” happen to be among the landlord class, the objectives become the defeat of imperialism and the end of foreign exploitation. All land reforms emphasize the need to improve the peasants’ social conditions and status, to alleviate poverty, and to redistribute income and wealth in their favour. Excessively large farms (latifundia) and excessively small farms (minifundia) tend to be inefficient. undergone land reform had more favourable rates of economic development than countries which were reluctant to accept land reform. This major restructuring of course has had knock-on consequences for the agricultural sector as a whole. Reforms such as these may be proclaimed by a government, by interested groups, or by revolution. Land Reform Programme (FTLRP), which started in 2000, has created an expanded number and array of small, medium and large scale farms, and … https://www.britannica.com/topic/land-reform. More specifically, this paper assesses trends in agricultural production, food security, the distributional outcomes of the FTLRP and the impacts of FTLRP on the social vulnerable groups. Impact of Land Reform in India: Following ere the outcomes of Land Reforms in India. 0 Historically, land reform meant reform of the tenure system or redistribution of the land ownership rights. 2.0 LAND ACQUISITION PATTERNS In recent decades the concept has been broadened in recognition of the strategic role of land and agriculture in development. Indian context, this is due primarily to land reforms that change the terms of land contracts rather than actually redistributing land. 0000003358 00000 n Britannica now has a site just for parents! End of Feudalism:. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox.  While his long reign has drawn criticism from western observers, he has remained the biggest supporter of the land reform in R… Updates? An application of the method to the assessment of impacts of land reform can be seen in IMPACT, an EU FAIR project (O'Connor et al, 2006). The concept of land reform has varied over time according to the range of functions which land itself has performed: as a factor of production, a store of value and wealth, a status symbol, or a source of social and political influence. %%EOF For the Landless, land reform remains an ‘unfinished business’. Land reform aims is to foster national development and prosperity through access to land and security of tenure for poorer citizens and victims of colonial land or state-led dispossession. Land reform has therefore become synonymous with agrarian reform or a rapid improvement of the agrarian structure, which comprises the land tenure system, the pattern of cultivation and farm organization, the scale of farm operation, the terms of tenancy, and the institutions of rural credit, marketing, and education. Economic development has become a major objective of governments and political parties in recent decades. Author of. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. 0000005015 00000 n 0000003281 00000 n Discuss, in brief, the contributions of land reforms in rural development. Land reform in South Africa is the promise of "land restitution" to empower farm workers (who now have the opportunity to become farmers) and reduce inequality. Most capitalist reforms are based on the premise that individual private ownership in the form of independent family farms will promote and sustain democratic institutions. This also refers to aspects such as, property, possibly white owned businesses. It also deals with the state of technology, or with any combination of these factors, as shown by modern reform movements, regardless of the political or ideological orientation of the reformers. 0000003035 00000 n Land tenure reform seems to have been of little significance in creating substantive economic change, although it has been important for improving the status of … The high aggregation clearly limits the policy relevance of these studies. Tend to be performed simultaneously responsibilities that go with them the economic power of the.! Reform has increasingly been used to encourage investments in rural areas to enable rural transformation 22. Measures by the state governments in the hands of big landowners has not... 3 ( )! 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