Access full text: available online, Manrique, M. 2011, ‘Supporting Africa’s new civil society: the case of Kenya’, Policy Brief, FRIDE, Madrid Social empowerment reinforces the ability to participate economically and politically, which in turn reinforces women’s standing in society. It argues that creative approaches can improve democratic engagement, although political resistance and civic suspicion need to be countered through cultural change, well-resourced support and imaginative institutional design. Of the literature that exists, the majority have been critical of such engagement. Whilst this invites important questions of political legitimacy, the authors note that almost all successful cases of public participation involve some form of democratic mediation. It is commonly argued that supporting people to influence the policy-making process and participate in decision-making is critical to the development of policies that reflect the needs and interests of the poor. This can often leave those who have been oppressed to believe that they themselves were responsible for their struggles. How can poor people be encouraged to participate in service delivery? It recommends that CSOs enhance their networking, research and communication skills and their understanding of political processes in order to improve their policy engagement. political / economic empowerment. However, it can also reinforce elite power and discrimination against women. There is limited research available on the role of social movements in development processes. It adds the caveat that coalition building can be carried out in different sequences and that reform leaders should always take stock of the ways in which coalitions have previously been successfully built and made sustainable. Shankland, A., 2006, ‘Making Space for Citizens: Broadening the ‘New Democratic Spaces’ for Citizen Participation’, IDS Policy Briefing No. Participatory budgeting, sectoral policy councils and conferences at each tier of government have provided spaces for new meanings and expressions of citizenship and democracy. However, the dynamics of how citizens mobilise differs depending on the political context. empowerment (Noun) The granting of political, social or economic power to an individual or group. The IDL Group, 2008, ‘Accountability and Voice for Service Delivery at the Local Level’, A background paper for the UNDP regional training event: Developing Capacities for Accountability and Voice, Sofia, Bulgaria, October 1-2, 2008, United Nations Development Program and the IDL Group National and local laws and policies mandating citizen participation can be important enabling conditions, although their effectiveness will depend on the historical and cultural context in which they are applied and the actors involved. 3, Pp. The media can play a powerful role in shaping and influencing public debate and opinion. Association for Progressive Communications, 2009, ‘ICTs for Democracy: Information and Communication Technologies for the Enhancement of Democracy – with a Focus on Empowerment’, Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, Stockholm Access full text: available online. The general relevance of social movements to poverty reduction is clear; poverty is a product of prevailing relations of power, and social movements emerge to challenge or deepen these prevailing relations of power. Providing information is the first step to improving accountability to excluded groups – information helps people to understand the services they are entitled to, and the mechanisms available to them to demand this level of service. It can also amplify the voice of marginalised and excluded groups. How can transparency reforms be empirically measured and effectively implemented? The process of becoming stronger and more confident, especially in controlling one’s life and claiming one’s rights. It finds that several mass media and ICT penetration variables are negatively associated with three development outcomes: corruption, inequality and poverty. As a result, donors have begun emphasising the importance of strengthening service providers’ direct accountability to users. This can range from the state providing constitutionally mandated ‘invited’ spaces for civil society actors, to fragile and conflict-affected contexts where powerholders are less willing to open up debate to citizens. Access full text: available online. A Study of Primary Education in Uttar Pradesh, India’, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3967, World Bank, Washington, DC empowerment (Noun) The process of supporting another person or persons to discover and claim personal power. This study examines the meanings and practices of participation and citizenship in the north and north east of Brazil. Linking citizen participation to the state at the local or grassroots level raises important questions about the nature of democracy and how to achieve it. International donors can best support social movements through flexible approaches that fund communications and training. Submit. 41, Issue 6, pp. Access full text: available online. the process of gaining freedom and power to do what you want or to control what happens to you: female / youth empowerment. This has occurred primarily through donor pressures to institutionalise movements in the form of professionalised NGOs and CSOs. Empowerment and accountability are interrelated, with considerable overlap between them. 5, pp. What can be achieved through social organisation? This report looks at the challenges and opportunities for vulnerable and marginalised communities presented by the latest wave of ICT innovations. Origin and Meaning of Empowerment Submit the origin and/or meaning of Empowerment to us below . Natural resource based enterprises play an important role in helping communities realize economic benefits from such resource management. However, poor people and other vulnerable minorities can often be excluded from participating in policy design and programmes that have a direct impact on their lives. These innovations may offer lessons on the pre-conditions for effective participatory governance as well as on institutional design. Instead, households with greater access are more likely to make financial investments in the education of their children. However, several studies – both at the macro and micro level, and including econometric studies – have found a correlation between political and economic transparency and improved governance and socio-economic indicators. 38 no. Governance, social development, conflict and humanitarian knowledge services. Part of the philosophy of the World … Donors should respond to this by reassessing their relations with, and even ideas of, domestic actors. However, government inputs into village schools and household knowledge of government education policies are no different in villages with greater access to community radio than in other villages. It finds that in the pre-internet period, civil society’s focus was on behind-the-scenes struggles for associational autonomy within the state-socialist framework. 2. the giving of an ability; enablement or permission 3. Or governments may not be actively supportive of the right to information, particularly in contexts where there is a legacy of undemocratic political systems or closed government. What kind of legal framework best enables citizen participation in local governance? Access full text: available online. What effect do civil society budget groups have on public budget allocations and implementation? Access full text: available online. Access full text: available online, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2008, ‘Governance, Taxation and Accountability: Issues and Practices’ OECD DAC Guidelines and reference series, Paris Empowerment is a process. My last column elicited tens of thousands of comments -- from the thoughtful to the sick -- on the internet and Twitter. How can civil society’s engagement in the policy-making process benefit the marginalised? How can public participation in government policy formulation and implementation be improved? Access full text: available online, Prichard, W., 2009, ‘The Politics of Taxation and Implications for Accountability in Ghana 1981-2008’, IDS Working Paper 330, Centre for the Future State, Institute of Development Studies, Brighton This paper reflects on case studies of citizen mobilisation in the North and South, arguing that the politics of knowledge is central to how movements are mobilised, framed and identified. Women’s effective participation must be facilitated through measures that include quotas and reserved seats in political bodies, and support for women’s capacity development and networking. This paper examines current practice, experiences and theory in advocacy capacity building. This report from the Learning Initiative on Citizen Participation and Local Governance (LogoLink) synthesises the findings of a research project on frameworks for citizen participation in East Africa, Latin America, South and South-East Asia and the North. Of the media variables, newspapers are observed to have a robust negative association with both corruption and inequality. Empowerment is defined as “ the process of becoming stronger and more confident, especially in controlling one’s life and claiming one’s rights ” (Oxford Dictionary). This requires not only social and political empowerment, which forms the basis of transformed relations with the state, but also economic empowerment, which enhances people’s abilities to engage. There is some robust evidence of the negative association of ICT expenditures with corruption. Increasingly, efforts are being made to help civil society organisations to influence policy more effectively. Civil society actors are also becoming involved in independent budget analysis and advocacy initiatives designed to enhance the transparency and poverty focus of public budgets. Now, however, the active involvement of citizens in shaping the policies that impact their lives is being emphasised, and the operational meaning of ‘participation’ has shifted from beneficiary involvement in community-level projects to citizen engagement in policy formation and implementation to influence and hold governments accountable. A Formerly Scholar of Vidyasagar University, Department of Political Science with Rural Administration, Midnapore, West Bengal, India E-mail: [email protected] [Abstract] Global empowerment of women is a new concept. Third, they have supported improvements in accountability, transparency and participation, by allowing citizens to publicise their concerns and grievances, share ideas, present information and hold governments to account. 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They play a key role in providing, collecting and analysing information to inform advocacy as well as citizen engagement in social accountability mechanisms. However, the success of ICTs is dependent on the political will of organisations to be transparent. Learn more. This study, building on earlier work undertaken for the Crisis States Research Centre, further developed for the Leadership, Elites and Coalitions Research Programme (LECRP) and also published by the Crisis States Research Centre, suggests that in South Africa, state-making and peace-building has been facilitated by: (1) the creation of an administrative machinery that can contain customary authority institutions within a broader polity; (2) political structures that channel the ambitions and grievances of traditional leaders; and (3) a system of local government that draws on the experience and access of chieftaincies to bring development to hard-to-reach areas. They can achieve what one citizen or organisation cannot do alone, making those members perceived to be weak less vulnerable to harassment and intimidation. Empowerment Means. The general relevance of social movements to poverty reduction is clear; poverty is a product of prevailing relations of power, and social movements emerge to challenge or deepen these prevailing relations of power. Critical to the success of CBNRM efforts is ensuring that local communities’ livelihoods needs are met through the sustainable management of natural resources. Access full text: available online, Tadesse, E. et al., 2006, ‘The People Shall Govern: A research report on public participation in the policy processes’, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (CSVR) and Action for Conflict Transformation (ACTION), Johannesburg An emerging layer of activists and initiatives is changing the tools and discourses through which democratic demands are voiced. Empowerment is a management concept that can result in higher productivity and job satisfaction in your organization. Radios and TVs are also observed to have a robust negative association with inequality and poverty. 25-41 Access full text: available online, Beardon, H. et al., n.d., ‘ICTs for Development: Empowerment or Exploitation? To enhance the potential of women’s political participation, democracy itself must be democratised, including by building new pathways into politics. To what extent has this translated into their political influence, or into gains in policies that redress gendered inequities and inequalities? 338-367 Access full text: available online, Rakner, L., Rocha Menocal, A. and Fritz, V., 2007, ‘Democratisation’s Third Wave and the Challenges of Democratic Deepening: Assessing International Democracy Assistance and Lessons Learned’, Research Paper for the Advisory Board to Irish Aid, Overseas Development Institute (ODI), London At these moments, the ideas, values and knowledge of key actors profoundly affect how an intervention plays out in practice, and thus what it is able to achieve. Support involves promoting understanding of the socio-political context, better research communication and use of evidence, and the creation of an explicit influencing strategy. It argues that three factors – large, flexible budgets; higher proportions of tax revenues from a local base; and lower costs for public participation – promote citizen and local government empowerment. 276, Institute of Development Studies, Brighton How can donors best support democratisation in these countries? Access full text: available online. Tandon, R., 2003, ‘Civil Society and Policy Reforms’, IDS Civil Society and Governance Policy Brief No. Access full text: available online, Subedi, B. et al, ‘Local Communities and Natural Products: a Manual for Organising Natural Resource Management Groups for Resource Management Planning, Enterprise Development and Integration into Value Chains’, USAID/ANSAB However, its effects on political reform depend on the extent to which web-based voices connect with off-line debate and action. Access full text: available online, Mohanty, R. et al. Youth empowerment is a process where children and young people are encouraged to take charge of their lives. Thirdly, it may be beneficial to rely on indigenous culture and local values as a foundation for social transformation, rather than the adoption of universal values. Empowerment is the degree of autonomy and self-determination in people and in communities. This book highlights freedom of expression and the right to information as fundamental human rights. How has the spread of digital media across international boundaries affected the role of civil society under authoritarian regimes? This paper from the Overseas Development Institute (ODI) argues that incomplete democratisation processes and the predominance of ‘hybrid regimes’ pose serious challenges to the sustainability, capacity, responsiveness and effectiveness of democratic institutions. It finds that the gains won through mobilisation are often selective and partial, and sometimes non-existent. While causality remains difficult to determine, transparency is associated with better socio-economic and human development indicators, and with higher competitiveness and lower corruption. The use of ICTs is also thought to increase people’s access to markets and jobs, and to help make public services more responsive and accountable to users. Access full text: available onlinde, Jha, C., et al., 2009, ‘Citizen Mobilisation in Nepal: Building on Nepal’s Tradition of Social Mobilisation to make Local Governance more Inclusive and Accountable’, Report prepared for DFID, World Bank and SDC Empowerment definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Melhem, S., Tandon, N., and Morrell, C., 2009, ‘Information and Communication Technologies for Women’s Socio-Economic Empowerment’, World Bank, Washington DC In many developing countries, access to ICTs is still limited, particularly in remote areas. This brief draws on case studies from India. This report provides an overview of issues relating to women and Information and Communication Technology, including issues of: access and education; inclusion in the ICT workforce; qualifications and appetite for ICT career adoption; and opportunities and threats of ICTs on women’s lives. The authors argue that households with greater access to community radio are more likely to make financial investments in the education of their children. Participation and accountability initiatives used to adopt a state-centric approach which viewed citizens as clients or consumers of services or policies (see World Bank, 2003, ‘Making Services Work for Poor People, World Development Report 2004’, World Bank, Washington D.C, Chapters 3, 5 and 6). This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. The increasing use of mobile telephones for film and photo documentation and the use of SMS for networking and mobilisation have created new opportunities for citizen participation. 12, No. Eventually, authoritarian governments worked social media into their own counter-insurgency strategies. Some of the key outcomes of empowerment initiatives in South Asia can be catagorised into personal, economic, political and social outcomes. Which democratic mechanisms might increase and deepen popular participation in the political process? This book explores the interaction between citizen mobilisation and the state in India, Brazil and South Africa. Access full text: available online. Their voices can be constrained by low awareness of rights, government resistance, poor access to information and complex laws and procedures for involvement in local decision-making. Haider, H., 2009, ‘Helpdesk Research Report: Donor Engagement with Social Movements’, Governance and Social Development Resource centre, University of Birmingham Recent research has stressed the need to shift from a technology-led approach, where the emphasis is on technical innovation, towards an approach that emphasises innovative use of already established technology (mobiles, radio, television). Community participation also affects public sector accountability at local, regional and national levels. Employee Empowerment in work setting means giving employees the means, ability, and authority to do something. The granting of political, social or economic power to an individual or group. Youth empowerment aims to improve quality of life. Donors have supported public information and literacy campaigns via mobile telephones, as well as citizen monitoring of government and donor policies and programmes from the ground up. Origin of Empowerment. State accountability to citizens can also involve participatory budgeting and various public oversight initiatives. What has been learnt about how civil society organisations should be conducting advocacy, engaging with and influencing key policies and decision makers? Finally, ICT expenditure is negatively associated with poverty. There is a growing emphasis on deepening democracy, and emerging ‘new democratic spaces’ seek to extend the range and scope of opportunities for citizen participation. Empowerment is also strongly connected to feminism. Mobilised citizens are knowledgeable actors engaged in dynamic, networked politics, involved in shifting forms of social solidarity and identification at local, national and global levels. Learning how to organize communities to effective manage natural resources, and natural resource based enterprises is an essential skill for any NGO or government agency dedicated to promoting CBNRM. This report defines a global agenda on gender and decentralisation. Authority, right, or power given to someone to do something. empowerment (Noun) Aside . : The granting of political, personal or economic power to an individual or team. Wong, S. and Guggenheim, S., 2005, ‘Community-driven Development: Decentralisation’s Accountability Challenge’, in East Asia Decentralizes: Making Local Government Work, The World Bank, Washington D.C., pp. Access full text: available online. This work within communities is to help its members unravel these kinds of manipul… Access full text: available online. The underlying logic is that greater empowerment also allows for greater accountability. It also supports the development of inclusive political institutions through which poor people’s interests can be meaningfully represented. Access full text: available online. How can service provision be designed and delivered in a way that ensures the opinions of the users, socially excluded groups and the voices of the poor are heard and represented? For … One … What role can local community participation in basic service delivery play in promoting development outcomes? It identifies three ways in which civil society engages in the policy making process in that country: resisting policy reform, including certain constituencies in policy making and implementing existing progressive public policies. Raich, U., 2005, ‘Fiscal Determinants of Empowerment’, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3705, World Bank, Washington Research from the Citizenship DRC has found that, across various contexts, broad-based coalitions (formal collaborative structures that aim to combine their influence and resources to carry out joint or coordinated activities) have been most successful in bringing about policy change. This background paper, published by UNDP and the IDL Group, examines the crucial role of accountability and voice (A&V) and methods for implementing A&V mechanisms. For example, the capacity of public bodies to provide information can be weak, and officials may be unaware of their obligations. It is widely acknowledged that establishing a causal relationship between social movements and any observed change in societies is problematic. Access full text: available online. Social media has played a critical role in recent uprisings, such as 2011’s Arab Spring, when political blogs, Facebook, Twitter and other online content helped to organise political action and build solidarity between opposition groups. This working paper from the Institute of Development Studies examines the impact and significance of independent budget analysis and advocacy initiatives designed to enhance the transparency and poverty focus of public budgets. It finds that taxation has often catalysed demands for greater accountability, but that outcomes have varied. This paper surveys CDD programmes in Indonesia, Cambodia and the Philippines to assess how far this approach improves accountability, service delivery and regulatory frameworks in local government. Access full text: available online. This paper assesses the capacity of various ‘democratic innovations’ to broaden citizen engagement and deepen participation in agenda-setting and decision-making. In the development context, the argument is that through greater accountability, ‘leaky pipes’ of corruption and inefficiency will be repaired, aid will be channelled more effectively, and in turn development initiatives will produce greater and more visible results. Empowerment and accountability are interrelated, with considerable overlap between them. What are the implications of women’s lack of engagement, participation and leadership in the use of ICTs for business and development? © Australian Government 2021; and outputs supported by the European Commission are © European Union 2021. Access full text: available online, UNDP, 2003, ‘Access to Information’, Practice Note, United Nations Development Programme, Oslo Governance Centre, Oslo VEA in fragile and conflict-affected states, Conceptualising empowerment and accountability, Accountability and responsiveness of the state and society. empowerment. For scholars and practitioners of democracy, a parallel argument holds that following the twentieth-century wave of democratisation, democracy now has to ‘deliver the goods’, especially in terms of material outcomes, and that new forms of democratic accountability can help it do so. Access full text: available online, Logolink, 2002, Participatory Planning Process IUCN Pakistan Experience with Environmental Rehabilitation in NWFP and Punjab (ERNP), case study, Logolink International Workshop on Participatory Planning Approaches for Local Government, Bandung, Indonesia Empowerment is never-ending, is far-reaching, and strengthens both sides. Bellver, A., and Kaufmann, D., 2005, ‘Transparenting Transparency: Initial Empirics and Policy Applications’, Draft discussion paper presented at the IMF conference on transparency and integrity 6-7 July 2005, World Bank, Washington, DC Access to information, for example, is an important pre-condition for citizens’ ability to hold decision makers to account. How can taxation policy help to improve governance and accountability in developing countries? An independent media can improve governance by raising citizen awareness of social issues, and creating a civic forum for debate. The limits of democratisation strategies which focus only on the formal electoral arena are becoming increasingly clear. They may also have limited capacity to conduct advocacy, and to develop the networks and platforms that are needed in order to ensure that the concerns of their constituencies are heard. Service provision arrangements linked to various forms of community participation may improve MDG-related outcomes. Therefore, as important as the relationship between citizens and the state, is a ‘horizontal’ view of citizenship – one which focuses on the relationship between citizens. State-society bargaining over taxation seems to be shaped by the broader state of politics, the role of elites, the mobilising capacity of civil society, the motives for the tax increase and the type of tax in question. It argues that much more attention needs to be paid to contextual factors and institutional design. 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