>> endobj endobj /Type /FontDescriptor [30], Funds earmarked for the purchase of white farms were frequently diverted into defence expenditure throughout the mid 1980s, for which Zimbabwean officials received some criticism. << This paper assesses the potential consequences of a land-reform … >> endobj The effect of Zimbabwe's failed land reform programme is clear. endobj /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding endobj /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding Effects of the Land Apportionment Act. 59 0 obj 26 0 obj >> /Type /FontDescriptor /TT6 69 0 R In June 1998, the Zimbabwe government published its "policy framework" on the Land Reform and Resettlement Programme Phase II (LRRP II), which envisaged the compulsory purchase over five years of 50,000 square kilometres from the 112,000 square kilometres owned by white commercial farmers, public corporations, churches, non-governmental organisations and multinational companies. /FontDescriptor 62 0 R endobj >> In fact, many developing countries in Africa are trying to build and transform their cities into modern cities. /Font << /LastChar 150 35 0 obj /FontWeight 400 [74][75] Production revived as the small-scale black farmers gained experience in growing tobacco. /Font << /BaseFont /TimesNewRomanPS-BoldMT 65 0 obj [22] Region I comprised an area in the eastern highlands with markedly higher rainfall best suited to the cultivation of diversified cash crops such as coffee and tea. Africans lost their land, and inheritance from their ancestors; It brewed hatred between Europeans and Africans which continued till … /ColorSpace << /Cs6 60 0 R 29 0 obj /Type /Font [23] A campaign of systematic villagisation followed as the Rhodesian Army shifted segments of the black population into guarded settlements to prevent their subversion by the insurgents. /FirstChar 32 null [22] Another 7.2 million acres were also set aside for sale to black farmers, known as the Native Purchase Areas. [2] However, the predominantly white commercial sector also provided a livelihood for over 30% of the paid workforce and accounted for some 40% of exports. /FontStretch /Normal << /ColorSpace << >> endobj >> [18] In 1889 Cecil Rhodes and the British South Africa Company (BSAC) introduced the earliest white settlers to Zimbabwe as prospectors, seeking concessions from the Ndebele for mineral rights. [23] Region V and a segment of Region II which possessed greater rainfall variability were organised into the Tribal Trust Lands (TTLs), reserved solely for black African ownership and use. /BaseFont /Arial-BoldMT [35] Public opinion on the Zimbabwean land reform process among British citizens was decidedly mediocre; it was perceived as a poor investment on the part of the UK's government in an ineffectual and shoddily implemented programme. /Subtype /TrueType h�b```f``�f`a`����ˀ �[email protected]�����Ig�)'f�30�Z}�A Smith's administration subsequently recognised the traditional leaders of each chiefdom as the final authority on land allocation in the TTLs. 6 0 obj Effects of the Land Apportionment Act. [43] With over a million hectares converted from primarily export crops to primarily maize, production of maize finally reached pre-2001 volume in 2017 under Mnangagwa's "command agriculture" programme. [22] To control the rate of erosion, colonial authorities introduced voluntary destocking initiatives for livestock. >> Most of the pastureland was being grazed by African-owned cattle, accordingly. [33], Between April 1980 and September 1987, the acreage of land occupied by white-owned commercial farms was reduced by about 20%. Growth in the sector has seen an increase in small and large scale mining operations. Now time for overall positive and negative points of the Land reform initiatives in India, by various Governments. 444 667 500 444 ] After Zimbabwe’s Fast Track Land Reform: Preliminary Observations on the Near Future of Zimbabwe’s Efforts to Resist Globalization, Bill Derman, 2006, Colloque international “Les frontières de la question foncière – At the frontier of land issues”. >> 62 0 obj "We have not seen these levels of malnutrition in more than 15 years," said Jane Muita, UNICEF's Zimbabwe representative. /TT2 65 0 R Hawkins argues that the analysis by Hanlon “ignores the spillover effects of land resettlement elsewhere in the economy.” “The fact is that – regardless of how many people found poorly-paid jobs in agriculture – land reform sparked a 40 percent decline in Zimbabwe’s GDP,” Hawkins states. African homestead in Rhodesia. /FontName /TimesNewRomanPS-BoldMT In return, the farmers received agricultural inputs such as seeds and fertiliser, as well as advice and supervision. /StemV 88 endobj [33] However, it was also clear that within the Ministry of Lands, Resettlement, and Redevelopment itself there was a lack of initiative and trained personnel to plan and implement mass resettlements. [26] This was enshrined in Section 16 of the Zimbabwean Constitution, 1980. The truth however is much more complex. In 2000, however, a Fast-Track Land Reform Programme (FTLRP) was initiated, resulting in the resettlement of most commercial land. [14] Both these peoples later came to form the nucleus of the Shona civilisation, along with the Zezuru in central Zimbabwe, the Korekore in the north, the Manyika in the east, the Ndau in the southeast, and the Kalanga in the southwest. Land reform is a system whereby statutory division of agricultural land and its reallocation to landless people takes place. >> endobj [28], The Lancaster House Agreement stipulated that farms could only be taken from whites on a "willing buyer, willing seller" principle for at least ten years. Land Reform Programme in Zimbabwe: Disparity Between Policy Design and Implementation Medicine Masiiwa Institute of Development Studies University of Zimbabwe May 2004 Note: An adapted version of this paper appears in the edited collection Post Independence Land Reform in Zimbabwe, published in May 2004 by the Friedrich Ebert Stiftung in Harare. /FontBBox [ -547 -307 1401 1032 ] /ExtGState << /LastChar 121 endobj [81][6], The rebound in Zimbabwean GDP following dollarisation is attributable to loans and foreign aid obtained by pledging the country's vast natural resources—including diamonds, gold, and platinum—to foreign powers. /ItalicAngle 0 Now time for overall positive and negative points of the Land reform initiatives in India, by various Governments. /FontStretch /Normal This early land reform produced a rather feudal form of politics based on racial and class discrimination imposed on the African population by the British government and white Rhodesians.5 Also, tribal traditions present no form of property rights as understood by Western culture. 2�Tr7���Q�ǜ)+9�q�,�~������*� �|�r�g�O�^��a�I��$�4.x4��y���8�*t��K���9�Q�������$�_��� ����L����k߁(8tv�Nz�~D�~�&��C:��S�p����lX}�w��m?�%”� ����fR :��P=ӖkǀԬ�+���ӑ�l�b��J8wm /BaseFont /ArialMT [16] In the late 1990s, Prime Minister Tony Blair terminated this arrangement when funds available from Margaret Thatcher's administration were exhausted, repudiating all commitments to land reform. /Kids [ 47 0 R 1 0 R 4 0 R 7 0 R 10 0 R 13 0 R 16 0 R 19 0 R 22 0 R ] A mere reference to land reforms in Zimbabwe raised eyebrows. 69 0 obj This sentiment was especially acute in Matabeleland, where the legacy of the Southern Rhodesian Land Apportionment Act was more disadvantageous to black Zimbabweans than other parts of the country. >> [22] Its principal crops included sugarcane, coffee, cotton, tobacco and several varieties of high-yield hybrid maize. endobj [22] As the amount of available pasture for the livestock quickly dwindled, accompanied by massive amounts of overgrazing and erosion, land competition between the three groups became intense. /Subtype /TrueType endobj endobj With no security of tenure on the farms, banks have been reluctant to extend loans to the new farmers, many of whom do not have much experience in commercial farming, nor assets to provide alternative collateral for any borrowed money. /Cs6 60 0 R § Speeding up the identification for … 0 667 0 722 0 667 0 778 0 0 0 0 889 722 0 611 0 0 0 611 0 0 889 0 0 611 0 0 0 0 0 << The opposition mostly boycotted the drafting stage of the constitution claiming that this new version was to entrench Mugabe politically. 500 333 0 0 0 0 0 0 722 667 722 722 667 611 0 0 389 500 778 0 944 722 778 611 0 722 [23] Land ownership in these regions was determined by race under the terms of the Southern Rhodesian Land Apportionment Act, passed in 1930, which reserved Regions I, II, and III for white settlement. (�+����D�̪ -4�w��8�$}�=�VP��Ρ��T��A"���0�7�4�Fc� /Flags 32 Annual production of maize, the main everyday food for Zimbabweans, was reduced by 31% during 2002 to 2012, while annual small grains production was up 163% during the same period. >> /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] The government also mentioned that black farmers who received land under the controversial land reform program would be moved to allow the former owners "to regain possession". /ItalicAngle 0 43 0 obj endobj Abstract. >> 39 0 obj 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500 500 444 500 444 278 0 0 278 This in itself shows the robustness of the process, and how right it has been. /FontName /TimesNewRomanPSMT /FontBBox [ -628 -376 2000 1018 ] >> [76] In 2019, Zimbabwe produced 258 million kg of tobacco, the second-largest crop on record. /FontDescriptor 64 0 R >> Another 4,500 landless peasants were allocated three. 278 833 556 500 556 0 444 389 333 556 500 722 0 500 444 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 17) Act, 2005 - Effectively vested ownership of agricultural land, compulsorily acquired for resettlement purposed in the land reform programme, in the state. The responsibilities for the partial success of the Zimbabwean land reform, rather than being solely attributed to Mugabe’s management, should be shared between Mugabe and the British government. null /Descent -216 >> /Descent -216 [11] A year later the Zimbabwean government announced that it would be compensating dispossessed white farmers for infrastructure investments in the land and had committed to pay out US$3.5 billion. 32 0 obj /Cs6 60 0 R [22], The Southern Rhodesian Land Apportionment Act reserved 49 million acres for white ownership and left 17.7 million acres of land unassigned to either the white preserve or the TTLs. endobj [23], The diversion of farms for personal use by Zimbabwe's political elite began to emerge as a crucial issue during the mid 1990s. Land reform in Zimbabwe has been hobbled, attacked, demonised and villified – and it still continues on. << /Ascent 891 Broken down, the 50,000 square kilometres meant that every year between 1998 and 2003, the government intended to purchase 10,000 square kilometres for redistribution. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500 500 ] [35] The list was compiled via a nationwide land identification exercise undertaken throughout the year. Region V was lowveld and unsuitable for crop cultivation due to its dry nature; however, limited livestock farming was still viable. << [14] Rhodes hoped to discover gold and establish a mining colony, but the original intention had to be modified as neither the costs nor the returns on the overhead capital matched the original projections. /Font << /TT2 65 0 R /TT10 63 0 R [31] It was also unable to build sufficient roads, clinics, and schools for the large number of people it was resettling in new areas. /Widths [ 278 ] /Subtype /TrueType /CapHeight 1000 /GS1 61 0 R /FontWeight 700 /FontStretch /Normal /Ascent 891 ", "Dollarization and the Zimbabwe's Economy", "Full Text of S. 494 (107th): Zimbabwe Democracy and Economic Recovery Act of 2001", "Fao Global Information And Early Warning System on Food And Agriculture – World Food Programme", "Zimbabwe Speaks – Interview with the minister of land reform in Zimbabwe", "Zimbabwe and Western Sanctions: Motives and Implications", "Zimbabwe: Fast Track Land Reform in Zimbabwe", "Zimbabwe's Land Program, PBS Backgrounder", Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital Archives, Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front, Robert Gabriel Mugabe International Airport, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Land_reform_in_Zimbabwe&oldid=1001098570, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from October 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 18 January 2021, at 06:50. /Type /FontDescriptor /CreationDate (D:20140906193413+05'30') ... and that is having a negative effect on the economy as a whole. [19], During the early 1950s, Southern Rhodesia passed the African Land Husbandry Act, which attempted to reform the communal system in the TTLs by giving black Africans the right to apply for formal title deeds to specific tracts. << /XHeight 1000 endobj Since Zimbabwe's land reform process in the year 2000 and the subsequent economic down turn, increasing focus has been placed on mining as the main productive activities. << /LastChar 32 444 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 333 333 444 444 0 500 ] [���K��_X�c3[n�. /FirstChar 32 [79], Critics of the land reforms have contended that they have had a serious detrimental effect on the Zimbabwean economy. /BaseFont /TimesNewRomanPSMT �ַ��-�/�ܷcn{��?��8�b.�`�y,���&��Y����c�R8���^c1����>���;$ ��*���� �J��.&��r�,�=�����w��ޞ� �{��4f���� �XgF�Rb�d�J8Ԁ��������4���7h�$'.4�qD�8�O�����暼c2� ��3�?�3�#! /ColorSpace << [7] Increasing poverty levels combined with the increased informality of farming operations amongst farmers who received redistributed land has led to an increase in the use of child labour especially in the growing of sugar cane. null Region II was highveld, also in the east, where the land could be used intensively for grain cultivation such as maize, tobacco, and wheat. [22] The newly created Zimbabwean Ministry of Lands, Resettlement, and Redevelopment announced later that year that land reform would be necessary to alleviate overpopulation in the former TTLs, extend the production potential of small-scale subsistence farmers, and improve the standards of living of rural blacks. In some economic policies like land reform, Mugabe’s management has had some positive effects on the population of Zimbabwe, even though the reform has not been completely successful. 44 0 obj /ExtGState << Upon the institution of the land redistribution programmes social, economic and political lives of men and women were altered to the extent that in some cases both positive and negative effects were realized. Region III and Region IV endured periodic drought and were regarded as suitable for livestock, in addition to crops which required little rainfall. [51][citation needed], Parliament, dominated by Zanu-PF, passed a constitutional amendment, signed into law on 12 September 2005, that nationalised farmland acquired through the "Fast Track" process and deprived original landowners of the right to challenge in court the government's decision to expropriate their land. Zimbabwe's often violent land reform programme has not been the complete economic disaster widely portrayed, a study by the UK's Institute of Development Studies at Sussex University finds. Zimbabwe responded by embarking on a "fast track" redistribution campaign, forcibly confiscating white farms without compensation. [32], In 1986, the government of Zimbabwe cited financial restraints and an ongoing drought as the two overriding factors influencing the slow progress of land reform. /FontFamily (Times New Roman) The land would be sold in the meantime, and the government obliged to evict the preexisting occupants. 60 0 obj >> >> After Zimbabwe’s Fast Track Land Reform: Preliminary Observations on the Near Future of Zimbabwe’s Efforts to Resist Globalization, Bill Derman, 2006, Colloque international “Les frontières de la question foncière – At the frontier of land issues”. /FontFamily (Times New Roman) /TT2 65 0 R The economy faces crisis hyper-inflation, foreign currency and commodity shortages and /LastChar 148 [32] A National Land Policy was formally proposed and enshrined as the Zimbabwean Land Acquisition Act of 1992, which empowered the government to acquire any land as it saw fit, although only after payment of financial compensation. Land Reform Programme in Zimbabwe: Disparity Between Policy Design and Implementation Medicine Masiiwa Institute of Development Studies University of Zimbabwe May 2004 Note: An adapted version of this paper appears in the edited collection Post Independence Land Reform in Zimbabwe, published in May 2004 by the Friedrich Ebert Stiftung in Harare. /FontStretch /Normal The second president Robert Mugabe established land reform policies blocked economic development as well. >> endobj 68 0 obj endobj [8], As of 2011, 237,858 Zimbabwean households had been provided with access to land under the programme. [70], Land reform caused a collapse in Zimbabwe's tobacco crop, its main agricultural export. endobj : 45] The guerrillas forcefully presented their position that white-owned land in Zimbabwe was rightfully theirs, on account of promises made to them during the Rhodesian Bush War. endobj /TT12 40 0 R The party needs to institute mechanisms to solve the numerous problems emanating from the way the land reform programme was conducted, especially taking cognisance the corrupt and vindictive practices by officers in the Ministry of Lands. /ItalicAngle -15 It is hoped that one of the positive effects of the indigenisation laws is to enable government to effectively regulate the direction of bank credit. an overall negative impact of land reform on agricultural productivity in their study on India (although some state-specific effects suggested heterogeneity in the impact of land reform across states). [25], In 1977, the Land Tenure Act was amended by the Rhodesian parliament, which further reduced the amount of land reserved for white ownership to 200,000 hectares, or 500,000 acres. The newly resettled peasants had largely failed to secure loans from commercial banks because they did not have title over the land on which they were resettled, and thus could not use it as collateral. 24 0 obj Population growth frequently resulted in the over-utilisation of the existing land, which became greatly diminished both in terms of cultivation and grazing due to the larger number of people attempting to share the same acreage. The discussion below outlines the effects of dollarisation on the Zimbabwean economy, namely the reduction of the competitiveness of local products in the international market on the negative side, and the reduction of capital flight and improved savings ability on the positive side. ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: Zimbabwe 1894-1969: Effects of the Land Apportionment Act. /ColorSpace << /Type /Font [23], Land reform emerged as a critical issue during the Lancaster House Talks to end the Rhodesian Bush War. 36 0 obj The letter was addressed to my deceased maternal grandfather, my mother's father, he being still the registered owner of four lots of land amounting to 7.7878 hectares here in our Municipality. /XHeight 1000 /ModDate (D:20140906193413+05'30') /Subtype /TrueType Since 1997 shifts in Zimbabwe’s land reform, agricultural and economic policies, and its relations with the international community, including external financial institutions, have accompanied dramatic economic decline. [16] White farmers were not to be placed under any pressure or intimidation, and if they decided to sell their farms they were allowed to determine their own asking prices. [5][6] There has been a significant[clarification needed] drop in total farm output which has led to instances of starvation and famine. /StemV 136 This declaration was also a clear and very public admittance that land reform had failed. [19] The region was demarcated as Southern Rhodesia after 1898. %PDF-1.5 >> As Zimbabwe's first prime minister, Mugabe reaffirmed his commitment to land reform. >> [68], Zimbabwe was once so rich in agricultural produce that it was dubbed the "bread basket" of Southern Africa, while it is now struggling to feed its own population. endobj /Font << /FontName /Arial-BoldMT [19] In 1900, Southern Rhodesia's black population owned an estimated 55,000 head of cattle, while European residents owned fewer than 12,000. Zimbabwe’s land reform has had a bad press. Farmland deeds would be replaced with 99-year leases, while leases for wildlife conservancies would be limited to 25 years. 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Transparency of the code by Mugabe 's family and senior officials in ZANU-PF small and large scale operations!