These designs were used from 1931 onwards. Vessels, Naval GunsTorpedoesRadarJapanese Ship Sunken Japanese Carrier Each new design was first given an experimental Shi number, based upon the current Japanese imperial year of reign. Not respecting Washington treaty’s clauses, Japanese Cruisers of the time were more strongly built (japanese steel), better armed, had better torpedoes (the famous “long lance”). At the time, with 474 aircraft, the First Air Fleet was the single most powerful grouping of … Without going back on the details of the operation (see the attack on Pearl Harbor), the air assault was conducted in two waves (and not three, the last being canceled by Ozawa, too happy with the success achieved so far and in a hurry to return) was apparently a definite success. aviation corps, consisting of 10 aircraft carriers and 1500 topnotch 1. Diplomatic talks were still going well the same night that force took off from the aircraft carriers, more than a hundred miles in front of Hawaii, and remarkably undetected until that point. For traditionalists, all the american battleships, spearheads of the Pacific fleet has been put out of action for at least a year or more, and two definitely, time for Japan to consolidate its empire in the Pacific. Feel free to start with pictures of Japanese But what had not escaped the attention of historians and specialists, especially in light of the events that followed, was that Pearl Harbor had been a partial failure: On the one hand, none of the aircraft carriers of the fleet was sunk (By chance, being absent), but moreover, the oil tanks of the fleet remained intact, giving these same aircraft carriers the means to operate without delay. The Meiji Era with the end of the civil war, consecrated the constitution of a homogeneous fleet in the service of the Shogun, with since 1855, the assistance of the Dutch. (J-Air)Mechanisms of IJN 34 Aircraft Carriers The third giant of carriers In December 1941, the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) possessed the second largest carrier fleet worldwide, with 9 of these in service, IJN Hosho, Kaga, Akagi, … Imperial Japanese Navy Land Forces of World War II originated with the Special Naval Landing Forces, and eventually consisted of the following: 1. Next to the clash of infantry in Burma, Malaysia, New Guinea and China, it over all was the clash of two navies, with specialized infantry, US Marines and Japanese Navy troops. Thus are born the first sea going Japanese war vessels. 1905, the IJN fleet golden age Thus the fleet that fought the Russians at Tsushima in 1905 was largely modeled on the British Royal Navy, almost an Asiatic clone. The League of Nations and the American opinion were gradually turned against Japan, although ever crossing a line that would make protests effective. On this site, you can also find out more about Imperial Navy's The air war was a fatal blow for the IJN aviation, which literally threw in its last strength, rare veterans but many young, inexperienced pilots who had succeeded them. The following graphs present the rank insignia of the Imperial Japanese Navyfrom its establishment in 1868 to its defeat during World War IIin 1945 (with some changes in April and November 1942). Its 11 (soon to be 12) battleships were among the most … Tarawa, Saipan, then Iwo Jima and finally Okinawa. Japanese Naval Air Force. WWII Aviation photographs. $65.00 shipping. A battle cruiser and an ultra modern battleship, recently illustrated against the Bismarck, and later, the only aircraft carrier dispatched to the scene (Hermes). With the turn of events, this carrier tested a light reconnaissance autogyro equipped with 60kgs depht-charges, the Ki-1 model. Maybe I'm just intrigued by the underdog. But the Japanese did not expected the stubborn resistance of the destroyers, which were all destroyed or damaged in the process, but held enough Kurita to retreat, having lost two major units and having others damaged or out of action. The Mitsubishi Zero so started its career as Navy Experimental 12-Shi Carrier Fighter. Japanese language, Nihon Kaigun, or even Teikoku Kaigun, the WW 2 Era Japanese katana, - Sashu ju Masauji, Kaigunto Mounts, Restored Saya. The Imperial Japanese Navy in World War Two was administered by the Ministry of the Navy of Japan and controlled by the Chief of the Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff at Imperial General Headquarters. This navy existed from 1868 to 1945, when it was replaced by the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force. At the beginning of the Second World War, the Japanese Navy (or, in the Japanese language, Nihon Kaigun, or even Teikoku Kaigun, the Imperial Navy) was arguably the most powerful navy in the world. The concept of nomenclatures applied to Japanese planes was born from this period beginning in 1937, with the withdrawal of the League of Nations. WW2 Imperial Japanese Army and Navy magazine Antique Military equipment. click to enter. That was a contest of aircr… Less spectacular however, this aspect of the Pacific War was just as important as amphibious operations. These were used for reconnaissance, artillery-spotting, and anti-submarine uses. Many Kaiten were however produced and deployed in 1945 on the coast of Japan. CarriersBattleshipsHeavy CruisersLight CruisersDestroyersSubmarinesMiscellaneous Imperial Navy) was arguably the most powerful navy in the world. -Taiyo class (Converted freighters 1944): Taiyo, Unyo, Chuyo. or Best Offer. –wartime———————————— -Ryuho (1933): Converted supply ship in 1942 -Junyo class (1941): converted liners Junyo and Hiyo -Taiho (1943): Large tailor-built aircraft carrier -Chitose class (converted 19343): Chitose, Chiyoda, Mizuho -Shinano (1944): Large fleet armoured aircraft carrier -Unryu class (1944): Unryu, Amagi, Katsuragi, Kasagi, Aso and Ikoma. As expected, Halsey fell for the bait, and driving north in pursuit of Ozawa, while the formidable “hammer” of Kurita, very skillfully maneuvering between the islands, fell without warning on the feeble Taffy 3 which was then left protecting the American landing: A handful of escort aircraft carriers or “jeep carriers” and their close guard, destroyers and escort destroyers. Apart from 370 training and reserve machines, the Japanese Naval Air Force totaled approx. The Marianas and Palau, outposts protecting the east flank of the Philippines were now targeted. After this, Japanese troops of the Philippines were also greater in numbers compared to the Americans. OfficersUS Navy The organization was responsible for the operation of naval aircraft … The last stage in this total was was to be close enough to home island for a relentless, merciless bombing campaign against civilian populations. By all means, IJN fighter A6M “Zero” or “Zeke” (here a Model 22) was considered by 1941 the best naval fighter worldwide. IJN cruiser Haguro and its Nakajima E8N Type 95 “Dave” reconnaissance seaplane in the yellow sea, 1936. In addition to the aircraft carriers, battleships, cruisers and countless destroyers they sank, these submariners decimated the trade fleet, sending by the bottom dozens of tankers and hundreds of cargo ships loaded with precious resources, in effect starving Japanese industry. It took the bulk of the US Navy and considerable ressources from other allies, British, Dutch, Australian and New Zealand naval forces, dozens of operations to retake major islands, the helped resistance of the Chinese on land and the Soviet coup de grace of August 1945 combined with two atomic bombs drops to eventually defeat Japan. Crew training on Mutsu’s deck. Sub Attack DataBibliographyWar Production More that's new as $84.00. Japan lost not only many veteran pilots, but also four valuable aircraft carriers, while the American lost just one in the aftermath. Yamamoto’s formidable “gamble” – against the opposition of other more traditional admirals like Ozawa, was supposed to shatter American public opinionand force the Govt. This also started a long attrition war throughout the pacific. See also Jon Parshall and Tony Tully's Shattered Sword on Battle of In terms of “classic” naval confrontation, this Chinese conflict was of no use, on the other hand, competition between the army and navy for the conquest of Japan allows him to refine his tactics. Colorized photo of the Agano, by Hirootoko jr. 124 in December 1941, 78 more until 1945 -Minekaze class (1919): 15 -Momi class (1919): 21 -Kamikaze class (1922): 9 -Mutsuki class (1925): 12 -Fubuki class (1927): 19 -Akatsuki class (1932): 4 -Hatusharu class (1932): 6 -Shiratsuyu class (1935): 10 -Asashio class (1936): 10 -Kagero class (1938): 18. Features section, which has some really neat stuff as well. It’s difficult to summup the Imperial Japanese Navy at the eve of 1941, but it was unquestionably, fit to fill the bill of conquering in a few month a huge maritime Empire in Asia, covering more square miles combined than the Axis conquest, German and Italian armies at their peak on land. She was also the sole user of a fighter seaplane a “Zero” mounted on floats, the Nakajima A6M2-N “Rufe”, and later the excellent N1K1 “Rex”. WWII Imperial Japanese Naval Aviation Page. Fact is, this risky operation for the IJN nearly succeeded. The also had, crucially, better trained crews for night fighting and officers that were willing to apply overall complex tactics, asking for excellent coordination and seamanship. It was exactly – as Yamamoto had foreseen – shortly after the announcement of his success, the opposite happened. WW2 Imperial Japanese Navy Very Rare !! The Imperial Japanese Navy of World War II was the second most powerful navy in the Pacific War in World War II. The bulk of the Japanese navy was now permanently anchored in Kure, the large military arsenal in southern Japan, which began to suffer massive US Navy air strikes from January 1945, culminating in July 1945, in preparation for the Olympic operation. In 1912, the Royal Navy had informally established its own flying branch, the Royal Naval Air Service. $293.00. The Base Force or Tokubetsu Konkyochitai provided services, primarily security, to naval facilities 3. The navy was officially founded in 1869. And its surface forces, armed with the superb 24" Type 93 (Long more about the book and purchase information. By the 1860s there was no proper “navy” but a collection of private fleets of the warring clans, consisting mainly of junks and galleys, many equipped with bronze artillery pieces. of 5 November 2011. Usually worn around the neck by flight personnel responsible for Navigation, Flight Coordination and Attack Coordination (torpedo and bombing runs), this Seikosha Pocket Watch is in EXCELLENT functioning condition! There were 660 fighters (mainly A6M Zeros), 330 carrier-borne strike aircraft, 240 twin-engined shore-based torpedo-bombers specifically intended for fleet cooperation, and 520 flying boats and seaplanes.. All these aircraft were organized in the Combined … The “ironbottom sound” off Savo Island near Guadalcanal was emblematic of this. A vast military exercise “without risks” life-size, to check the application of the latest theories born from the joint-arms strategy. At the begining of World War II, the Imperial Navy had created the finest naval aviation corps in the world. Japanese aircraft were at least the equals of anything then flying in the West, and in some cases (as with the legendary Zero fighter) were substantially better. This List of Japanese Navy ships and war vessels in World War II is a list of seafaring … Wreckage Identified! In Santa Cruz, the IJN won a victory that was “Pyrrhic” in essence. Finally, you can learn a little about A “David against Goliath” who earned surviving crews a rain of presidential citations. Destroyers and later cruisers were produced locally, first on adapted foreign plans. War. Sequel! When in 1941, the war broke out with the USA, most Japanese pilots were veterans who had indeed under the belt more than 5 years of continuous fighting, including against Chennault’s “Flying Tigers”. The following graphs present the rank insignia of the Imperial Japanese Navy from its establishment in 1868 to its defeat during World War II in 1945. Consequently, at the beginning of World War II, Japan probably had the most sophisticated Navy in the world. Imperial Japanese Navy Land Forces of World War II were ground combat units consisting of navy personnel organized for offensive operations and for the defense of Japanese naval facilities both overseas and in the Japanese home islands. Its strategic position made it an essential ally during the Cold War. world. New Book on Battle of Surigao Strait In the same way, American units operated in packs and obtained prodigious successes during the war. shipping: + $20.00 shipping . However, after a series of defeats it lost control of the Western Pacific and collapsed by the end of the war. IJN destroyers in 1941, colorized by Hirootoko jr. –wartime————————————– -Yugumo class (1941): 19 -Shimakaze class (1942): 16 -Akitsuki class (1941): 11 -Matsu class escort (1944): 18 -Tachibana class escort (1944): 14, 67 in December 1941, 832 more until 1945 -L4 class (1922): 9 -J class (1924): 8 (J1-J3) -KRS class (1926): 4 -A class (1938): 6 (A1, A2, AM) -B class (1939): 29 (B1-B3) -C class (1939): 11 (C1-C3) ———————————————– -D1 class (1943): 12(+2 D2 incomplete) -KD class (1942): 35 (KD1-KD7) -KS class (1942): 18 -K class (1942): 20 (K5, K6) -STO class (1944): 3 -STS class (1945): 10(16+50) -ST class (1945): 3(6) -SH class (1945): 1(2) -Yu1 class (1944): 12 -Yu1001 class (1945): 14 -SS class (1945): 4(12) -Midget submarines Ko-Hyoteki: 50 -Midget submarines Kairyu Type: 250 -Kaiten Type human torpedoes: 400, TBs and escort ships -Tomozuru/Otori class TBs (1933): 12 -Shimushu/Type A escorts (1939): 4 -Erotofu/Type A (1942): 14 -Mikura/Type B (1942): 8 -Uruku class/Type B (1942): 29(142) -Type C (1943): 56(300) -Type D (1944): 67(203), 34 Minelayers -Shirataka (1929) -Itsukushima (1929) -Kamome class (1929): 2 -Yaeyama (1931) -Nasami class (1933): 2 -Okinoshima (1935) -Sokuten/Harashima/Ajiro class (1938): 16 -Hatsutaka class (1939): 3 -Kamishima class (1945): 2 -Hatsushima class (1940): 4, 41 Minesweepers -W1 class (1923) -W5 class (1928) -W13 (1933) -W17 (1935) -W7 (1938) -W19 (1941), 22 Gunboats Toba (1911) Seta class (1913): 4 Ataka (1922) Atami class (1928): 2 Saga (1932) Hashidate class (1939): 2 Fushimi class (1939): 2 Kotaka (1940) Captured gunboats Tarara, nanyo, Nankai, Okitsu, Karatsu, Shima, maiko, Barumi, 1400 Amphibious ships -Kumano Maru assault aircraft carrier (1944) -Shinshu Maru Landing Craft Depot Ship (1935) -Type T1 (1944): 21 -Type T101/103 (1944): 70 -SS type landing crafts (1942-44): 22 -Daihatsu class landing crafts (1942): 1300, 11 Seaplane carriers -Notoro (1920) -Kamoi (1922) -Chitose class (1936) – converted 1942 -Mizuho (1938) -Nisshin (1939) -Akitsushima (1941) -Shimane Maru class (1944) -Yamashiro Maru class (1935), 56 Submarine chasers -CH1 class (1935): 2 -Ch3 class (1936): 10 -CH51 class (1936): 2 -CH13 class (1940): 42, Japanese Motor torpedo boats -19 metre class (1940) -T1 class (1941) -T23 class (1943) -T14 class (1944) -T15 class (1944) -T51 class (1942) -H class gunboat launches (1942) -19/15m class launches (1936) -Type 25t class launches (1940) -Shinyo class suicide boats (1944), en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Submarines_of_the_Imperial_Japanese_Navy Conway’s all the world fighting ships 1922-1946 http://fr.naval-encyclopedia.com/2e-guerre-mondiale/nihhon-kaigun.php#cuir, https://www.cgtrader.com/3d-models/watercraft/military/battleship-fuso, Argentinian Navy Brazilian Navy Armada de Chile Chinese Navy Danish Navy Finnish Navy French Navy Hellenic Navy Royal Indian navy Italian Navy Imperial Japanese Navy German Navy Polish Navy Romanian Navy Sovietskaya Flota Spanish Armada Swedish Navy Dutch Navy Royal Canadian Navy Royal Navy RNZN Sjøforsvaret Thai Navy Turkish Navy US Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy Minor Navies, Chao Yung (Chaoyong) class protected cruisers (1880). The Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service ('IJNAS') was the air arm of the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. Doctrine, By Bob Hackett, Sander Kingsepp and Peter The deployment of the Yamato in its last “no return” exit destined to fail Okinawa (Ten-go operation) to use its artillery against the US landing force was killed in the egg by naval air in March 1945. Warships in 3-DWorld War II Aircraft But their action was derisory compared to the mass of US submarines engaged: The “Gato” and its subclasses Balao and tench counted in all 77 units. Fleet's Discussion & Message Board - Tully's Port. That was a contest of aircraft carriers, seaplanes, cruisers and destroyers. New to this site? From 1944 and particularly after the battle of Leyte, the Kamikaze tactic was systematically used, with sometimes impressive results. Also by the same authors: Related Partner Sites: Combined Fleet Message Board | J-Air Forum | WW2 Database | IJN DoctrineCombined Fleet Message Board | J-Air Forum | WW2 Database | IJN Doctrine 4. While the marines were distinguished by their tenacity despite a desperate situation at Guadalcanal, the IJN showed by its undeniable success that it had overall tactical mastery, both on land and at sea. The pilots, from all walks of life and not inexperienced as we have often said, took the sake in honor of the emperor before taking off, ritual ceremony, then sometimes loaded with bombs to maximize the effect of their impact, tried to crash on the deck or hull of American buildings. Japanese Army WW2 Military Horn Trumpet Rappa Antique Imperial Japan Rare Q9. Japan was fighting to defend its island possessions, including precious raw materials supply lines vital for its industry, like oil and rubber… While on the American side it was seen as a grinding serie of landing operations bound to retrieve Japanese possessions close enough to bomb Japan, and the sine qua non condition for a total victory over such opponent. into negociation. The Nippon Navy has since gained importance both by the tonnage of its buildings and their nature. Strait is now available. This was the key moment of the pacific war. Battleships, cruisers were British-built (with the exception of two French and one German). The World's Best Battleship: The WW2 JAPANESE IMPERIAL NAVY ENAMELED AWARD. Japanese fanaticism also set in motion the furious, savage, no-quarter given character to the fighting in the pacific until the end, with hatred from both sides. San Juan Bautista (1614) – One of Japan's first Western-style sail warships, transported the embassy of Hasekura Tsunenaga to America in 1614. Mysteries and Untold Sagas of $380.00. Subsequently, the French and especially the “young school” under the aegis of Emile Bertin were going to be more and more present in this area and provide Japan with many ships until 1895 and set up some institutions. The low-angle photo gives an idea of ​​what will remain the largest “classic” warship of all time. Free shipping. Red seal ships – Around 350 armed sailships, commissioned by the Bakufu in the early 17th century, for Asian and South-East Asian trade. Despite laying the keel of some 150 escort destroyers from 1942, Japan never matched the American industry capabilities and ultimately would lost its ASW war and supplies. 2. Defence units or Bobitai or Boei-han: detachments of 200 to 400 men. The IJN had, at the beginning of the Pacific War, three aircraft designation systems: The Experimental Shi numbers, the Type numbering system and an aircraft designation system broadly similar to that used by the U.S. Navyfrom 1922 until 1962. The war in the Pacific was not a duel, but the engagement of a multitude of nations, a huge variety of theaters of operations, ranging from the deserts of China through the jungle of Borneo and icy mountains of the Aleutians. -Kaiyo (1944) -Shinyo (1944) -Yamashio Maru class ASW escort carrier: 1(1) -Akitsu Maru ASW escort carrier: Akitsu Maru, Kumano Maru -Ibuki (cruiser conversion Project). Free shipping . Upon entering production the aircraft was given a Type number. While many aircraft were shot down, the Americans lost 7 ships while 200 were more or less seriously affected. Special Naval Landing Force or Rikusentai or kaigun rikusentai or Tokubetsu Rikusentai: the Japanese Marines 2. Warships in 3-D, Fleet Carriers, Escort At the beginning of the Second World War, the Japanese Navy (or, in the It gave the impression of an invincible plane and air force at least until 1943. Reports was taken in account when designing the first postwar antiship missiles. This is a list of fleets of the Imperial Japanese Navy, the navy of the Empire of Japan. Colorized photo by Hirootoko jr. 38 in December 1941, 5 more until 1945 -Tenryu class (1919): Tenryu, Tatsuta -Kuma class (1921): Kuma, Tama, Kitakami, Oi, Kiso -Nagara class (1921): Nagara, Isuzu, Natori, Yura, Kinu, Abukuma -Sendai class (1923): Sendai, Jintsū, Naka, Kako -Yubari (1923) -Furutaka class (1925): Furutaka, Kako -Aoba class (1926): Aoba, Kinugasa -Nachi class (1927): Nachi, Myoko, Ashigara, Haguro -Takao class (1930): Takao, Atago, Maya Chokai -Mogami class (1934): Mogami, Mikuma, Suzuya, Kumano -Tone class (1937): Tone, Chikuma -Katori class (1939): Katori, Kashima et Kashii —-Wartime: —————————- -Agano class (1941): Agano, Noshiro, Yahagi, Sakawa -Oyodo (1942). Its naval Imperial Japanese Navy, or my Special Target: Pearl Harbor. The situation that prevailed at Guadalcanal could have happened again. and Gilbert Casse, Untold Tales of the April 10, 1941 marked a pivotal moment in naval aviation history. After the shock, the outrage, and famous president “day of infamy” talk, that quiet Sunday in paradise where more than 4,000 sailors and staff of the base were brutally pulled out of their sleep to die soon after, shook a waving American public to the core. You are bidding on a FANTASTIC used example of a WW2 Imperial Japanese Navy Seikosha Stopwatch and Clock Model 1 "Otu", as ONLY used by Submarines and Torpedo Boats! has fascinated me practically forever. In 1940, Yamamoto departed from the Taranto attack by the British Navy and was inspired, with the help of pilot-officers, to develop Operation Z. 10 in December 1941, 1 completed, 2 in construction -KONGO class fast battleships (1912): 4: Kongo, Haruna, Hiei, Kirishima -FUSO class fast battleships (1915): 2: Fuso, Yamashiro -ISE class fast battleships (1917): 2: Isa, Hyuga -NAGATO class fast battleships (1919): 2: Nagato, Mutsu –wartime—————————————- -YAMATO class battleships (Yamato in service 16 December 1941, Musashi in completion 5 August 1942, 2 others), Japanese Battleship Nagato in brunei, October 1944, 10 in December 1941, 22 more until 1945 -Hosho (1919) -Akagi (1927) -Kaga (1928) -Ryujo (1931) -Soryu (1935) -Hiryu (1937) -Shokaku class (1939): Shokaku Zuikaku -Zuiho class (1940): Zuiho, Soho. The largest naval battle since Trafalgar and Aboukir perhaps, and Jutland in ww1, was a massive engagement spanning several day and comprising several sub-battles generally assimilated as the “battle of Leyte”. But miraculously, the bridgehead supported by the survivors of the Taffy 3, held firm. No new action of this magnitude was repeated on the Japanese side, which definitively lost both interest and assets to conduct another major action. The planes were not the only suicide weapons deployed: The Japanese put into service from the mid-44 several models of “Kaiten” piloted torpedoes, deployed from submersibles and reformed destroyers. Lance) torpedo, were incomparable night fighters. Imperial Japanese Navy, Mechanisms of IJN In any case it was unable to stand up to the Japanese fleet, which destroyed it in a few weeks in 1937. But another side of this war is less known: The total was led by American submersibles against the IJN supply lines, from its centers of extraction of the south pacific to the metropolis. Carriers and Seaplane Carriers. For comparison nothing came up close until the USS Enterprise of 1960 at 84,626 tons. For a year, these few carriers, with a handful of cruisers, were going to hold firm, by tooth and nails in front of the Japanse armada, and even inflict a serious defeat at Midway, just the miracle that was needed for the American industry to catch up and eventually weigh down Japan. These raids that terrified the Americans and actually sank or damaged a lot of ships, not least: Carriers were indeed a preferred target because of their size and importance. aviators, was the most highly trained and proficient force of its kind. The design of their aircraft had thus followed their recommendations and their tactical training was at the pinnacle of what was possible in this part of the world. This was small compare with the hundreds of U Bootes engaged (more than 1100 built during the conflict), but they were much larger (twice the tonnage, much roomier), had twice the radius of action and were in general much more succesful. $1,800.00. You can The IJN had many features that are hard to miss, from the characteristic reconstructed battleships of the WW1 era with their huge pagoda-like superstructure, bridge-less aircraft carriers, dark grey livery, unique classes like the only I-400 submarines, powerful destroyers, the first ASW assault ships chasing submarines with autogyros or suicide launches… It was “well-used” on a strictly military side of things, effectively allowing the army on land to conquer and retain most of Asia to create a “new world order”, with the supplies to match. the Imperial Japanese Navy. It was the third largest navy in the world by 1920 behind the United States Navy and Royal Navy. The academy and trainig course included mandatory trips in UK, and at least two generations of officers were trained with the Royal Navy and used RN tactics. The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) was formed circa 1952-1954 after the dissolution of the IJN. Global view of the IJN (poster available). San Buena Ventura (1607) – Built by William Adams for Tokugawa Ieyasu. Japanese cruisers ranged throughout the Pacific in World War II and were in the forefront of virtually all the major engagements against Allied Forces. The only tangible success was the destruction of the tanker USS Mississinewa in November 1944. The war in the Pacific was not a duel, but the engagement of a multitude of nations, a huge variety of theaters of operations, ranging from the deserts of China through the jungle of Borneo and icy mountains of the Aleutians. 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