'” (Bugnini, p.450). [The guidelines also stated that all Christian churches “the Roman rite excepted” use “a great variety” of anaphoras-Ed.]. b. Today, we focus on the center and high point of the Mass — the eucharistic prayer (GIRM, n. 78) in which the whole assembly joins with Christ in offering his sacrifice and in praising God. Noting that during its first 1600 years, the Roman rite knew only one Eucharistic Prayer, Father Cassian observes that the multiplication of “options” since the early to mid-1970s has resulted in the virtual disappearance of the Roman Canon. Since Vagaggini had a particularly keen interest in the pneumatological dimension of the liturgy, his new Eucharistic Prayers (III and IV) give a decided emphasis to the Holy Spirit. According to this spirit (which is legion), the supreme criterion is brevity. Notitiae 8 (1972), p.132. The structure of the standardized 4th century Antiochene anaphora, which is placed after the offertory and the Creed and comes before the Lord's Prayer, the Elevation and the Communion rites, can be summarized as follows:[2]:6. In order to achieve a resolution of the difficulties, it was proposed to experiment with three revised forms of the Roman Canon (Bugnini, p.343). My proposal is not radical. The Roman Canon should itself be revised to facilitate its use. 7 I am following the story as given by Annibale Bugnini, The Reform of the Liturgy: 1948-1975 (Collegeville: The Liturgical Press, 1990), pp.105-107. For the official texts, cf. The combination of secular and theological forces in the late sixties had no little effect on the liturgy. The Eucharistic Prayer includes the Epiclesis, which is the calling down of the Holy Spirit to sanctify the gifts, and the prayer … Bugnini, p.482, n.50. 19 Cf. 27 The very next day, July 9, 1975, the Congregation for Divine Worship was suppressed and Archbishop Bugnini was relieved of his position. Because of these differences, it is essential that eucharistic liturgy be studied from ahistorical perspective. The argument about variety is not foolproof, however. In that case it would also feel obliged to see to it that any new prayer still displayed the Roman genius, so that the Roman Mass would continue to be faithful to the spirit of the Roman liturgy (Bugnini, p.449). These questions are the subject matter of this essay. Hence when the Eucharistic Prayer began to be said aloud in the vernacular, with four to choose from — and the Roman canon chosen rarely, if ever — the average layman did not realize that 1600 years of tradition had suddenly vanished like a lost civilization, leaving few traces behind, and those of interest only to archaeologists and tourists. The Latin text of the two reconciliation anaphoras was not published until 1983, on the occasion of the special Jubilee Year of the Redemption: Notitiae 19 (1983) 270-279. In any case, neither the Schema nor the final text of Sacrosanctum Concilium make any mention of new Eucharistic Prayers. In the voting itself, a number of votes placet iuxta modum expressed the same reservations. DOL #248, pp.623-629. The anaphoras are addressed by the Church to the Father, even if in antiquity there were cases of Eucharistic prayers addressed to Christ, as the anaphora of Gregory Nazianzen or partially the Third Anaphora of St. Peter (Sharar). 30 “Au cours des derniers mois,” Notitiae 4 (1968) 148-155; DOL #244, pp.614-619. While the door had certainly been drawn to, it had not been slammed shut, since the circular letter included the following proviso: Moved by a pastoral love for unity, the Apostolic See reserves to itself the right to regulate a matter so important as the discipline of the eucharistic prayers. Thus, negative signals were being sent to the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Study Group, but apparently these signals were not understood. We would soon realize just how serious are the liturgical and pastoral problems arising from the text. Online Edition – Vol. 449-450). 3 2. Who Prays the Eucharistic Prayer? The Congregation for Divine Worship had been severely chastened. The present Roman canon sins in a number of ways against those requirements of good liturgical composition and sound liturgical sense that were emphasized by the Second Vatican Council. All Rights Reserved. An analysis of why this happened, on the other hand is, of its very nature, more speculative. On the contrary the Western Church had for centuries only one anaphora, the Roman Canon, but it has variable parts according to the liturgical year, mainly the Preface. Eucharistic Prayer III. In the process of the work, the question of the … The Eucharist & Social Justice 10. For the history of the "Roman Canon" see also articles Canon of the Mass, Pre-Tridentine Mass and Tridentine Mass. (1940). In the sacrificial language of the Greek version of the Old Testament known as the Septuagint, προσφέρειν (prospherein) is used of the offerer's bringing the victim to the altar, and ἀναφέρειν (anapherein) is used of the priest's offering up the selected portion upon the altar (see, for instance, Leviticus 2:14, 2:16, 3:1, 3:5). A personal anecdote can illustrate the point nicely. In the Byzantine Rite the anaphora, whether that of St. John Chrysostom or St. Bugnini remarks that the value of the vote was “quite relative” because the Fathers were not voting as actual representatives of their episcopal conferences, but as individual bishops (Bugnini, p.351). f. The definitive approval was given on April 27, 1968. g. The three new Eucharistic Prayers were promulgated by a decree of the Congregation of Rites on May 23, 1968,15 which also determined that the prayers could be used beginning August 15, 1968. h. On the same day, the document “Norms on the Use of Eucharistic Prayers I-IV” was issued.16 Since these norms are not very well known, it is worthwhile to cite them here. G. Caprile, Il Concilio Vaticano II, vol 2: Il primo periodo 1962-1963 (Roma 1968), p.114. 18 “Au cours des derniers mois,” Notitiae 4 (1968) 148-155; DOL #244, pp.614-619. (He does treat the merits of the Roman canon as well, but that section is much shorter.). i. Of the three new texts which were eventually approved, one is very short (EP II), one of medium length (EP III) and one is rather long since it includes a summary exposition of the entire economy of salvation EP IV). One feature that eventually became a part of all the early Eucharistic prayers was the Sanctus hymn, based on Isaiah 6:3 … Eucharistic Prayer n. 3: it is a new composition that uses the Antiochene structure filled with Alexandrine and Roman themes. One could recommend that priests read and study in this area, but practically speaking, most priests have little time for extra study. Vagaggini’s proposals were then examined by the entire study group, various periti, and the Fathers of the Consilium. One month later, on June 20, 1966, Cardinal Lercaro submitted the following request to the Holy Father: Any projected revision of the text of the Eucharistic Prayer faces numerous and sensitive problems; but then so does the retention of the prayer in its present form present difficulties. Dissatisfaction with the Roman Canon and architectural functionalism. Fine woodwork and stonework appear in the most hidden and out-of-the-way places. (i.e. As an Italian liturgical scholar puts it: “its use today is so minimal as to be statistically irrelevant”.1. Another important source is the anaphora described in the Mystagogical Cathecheses of Theodore of Mopsuestia.[10]. The accout of what happened to the Roman Canon continues in Part II following. The Coptic Church, even if its own rite is the Alexandrian Rite, uses two anaphoras that belong to the literal tradition of the Antiochene rites: The main currently used anaphora of the Alexandrian Rite is the Liturgy of Saint Cyril the Great, which is a revision of the first Alexandrian Liturgy composed by Saint Mark. Each part of an old building has its own history, and old rambling houses like this are truly wonderful: but they are not neat. Nor did the 3 rd – 4 th century Apostolic Tradition , which provided the foundation for Eucharistic Prayer … Eucharistic Prayer IV, however, should always be used with the preface printed above.) 16 Notitiae 4 (1968) 157-160; DOL #242, pp.609-612. Liddell, Henry George & Scott, Robert. 31 Es ist nicht nur der ökumenische Zug unserer Zeit, der sich der Denkweise orientalischer Theologie anzunähern bestrebt ist, sondern darüber hinaus — man muss nur Vagagginis Darstellung liturgischer Grundbegriffe vor Augen haben — auch ein gutes Stück persönlicher Theologie des Verfassers.” Josef Jungmann, “Um die Reform des römischen Kanons: eine kritische Stellungnahme zu C. Vagagginis Entwürfen“, Liturgisches Jahrbuch 17 (1967) 11. One of the main reasons given for proposing these new anaphoras was the principle of variety. Since the door remained partly ajar, people made bold to knock. The Roman Canon would be burdensome if recited aloud, because it is always the same; 2. 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