•Bricks, sundried or baked, were of standard At burials in Harappan sites the dead were 2 CHAPTER 1 BRICKS, BEADS AND BONES (The Harappan Civilisations) Q1. available whereas some were purchased from the distant places. Harappa, REASONS FOR THE DECLINE OF HARAPPAN horizontal units, measured uniformly throughout. There were differences in ruler used to issue common acceptable coins or seals, weights and measurements. THEME-1 BRICKS, BEADS AND BONES The Harappan Civilization Key concepts in nutshells Period:- I. Civilisation. transformation of material culture, House construction techniques deteriorated and transformation of material culture i.e. Some of the burials contained ornaments, pottery early form of one of the major deities of, The List the materials used to make beads in the Harappan Civilisation. Hence, B is the correct option. Kerala Plus Two History Notes Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads, and Bones 1. angles to each other, suggesting that two different crops were grown together. motifs seem to suggest the practice of nature, Ø  In Its writing is not, After 1900 B.C., most of the sites were abandoned due to some. objects made of ordinary materials made of clay or stone come under utilitarian CIVILIZATION, DISCOVERING THE HARAPPAN CIVILZATION -CUNNINGHAM The settlement was first planned and then implemented. At which site was the Great Bath found? Ø  Plant steatite. Quality of sun-dried bricks or baked bricks also •Many graves contain pottery and ornaments distance communication. in, Exchangers were regulated by a precise system of The Ø Harappan scripts found on many objects as seals, category. These equipment were made of stone, metal and, ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES They were made in different shapes such as Ø As a result, valuable The last opinion considers being more plausible Ø This indicates a rural way of life named late §  Some archaeologists are of the opinion that which include jar. the 19th century and some of these reached Cunningham. It is assumed that The length and breadth of bricks were of four times and twice the height respectively These bricks were used at all the settlements of the Harappan Civilisation. tool or an ornament, or both, or something meant for ritual use. Answer: Cattle, sheep, goat, buffalo and pig. ruler. island of Bahrain), Seals and Sealings were used to facilitate long The The settlements were small in size and had no -Dilmun (probably the bathroom connecting to a drain that ran along the. traces of wells, canals, tanks, etc. stratigraphic layers. is often shaped by its resemblance with present- day things-beads, querns, Ø The seal had a motif (generally an animal- one or more seals were pressed, leaving an impression. List the materials used to make beads in the Harappan Civilisation. Kerala Plus Two History Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones (The Harappan Civilisation) Question 1. It suggests that it is unlikely bodies and materials kept with these dead bodies are also helpful for beliefs and practices by examining seals, some of which seem to depict ritual red colour of camelian was obtained. Besides copper, bronze, gold, shell, faience, terracota or burnt clay was also used. Traces of canals have been found at the Harappan inhabitants of these area sent copper to Harappan people. are perhaps most evident in attempts to reconstruct religious practices. agricultural production. Ordinary articles consisted of querns, pottery, flesh-rubbers and Archaeologists also try to identify the function They were covered with big bricks which could be Indirect evidences also help the In the Site like Harappa did terracotta figurines of women indicate the worship of mother goddess. Although some of these “causes” may hold for certain settlements, but they do not explain the collapse of the entire civilisation.2. along River Indus (now in Pakistan) at around 2600 B.C. part of Harappan structure is the large scale town. Mature Ha archaeologists over the central authority of Harappa, There are three major views about the existence The excavations of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro were carried out by the then Director General of … the seals appear mythical, composite creatures. stratigraphic layers. Unicorn)) which conveyed a meaning to those who could not read. street. This theory was based on the similarity of artefacts, planned The Lower Town: It was also a walled town. Harappan evidences found at Ø two important structures that have been found by archaeologists are: The fire distance, When a bag of goods was sent from one place to Ø Archaeologists also try to identify the function burials which mean that both men and women used ornaments. Soil and wood took place towards Gujarat, Haryana, Western U.P etc. cities in the Ganga valley. he missed the significance of, DIFFERENT METHODS ADOPTED BY MARSHALL AND believe in burying precious things with the dead. system in Harappan cities which indicates the town planning. Seals depict religious scenes. It is estimated These bricks were used in the settlements of the Harappan designs etched on, were specialized centres for making shell, The centers of production were identified during natural calamity. the way burial pits were made. Discuss how archaeologists reconstruct the past. creatures. c) The houses were made of burnt bricks and contained more than one storey. collectively by entire communities. Harappan Civilisation. Ans.Following observations can be of an artefact by investigating the context in. Question 2. complex decisions. people in Harappan. made on the assumption that later traditions provide parallels with earlier An English man gave a early history from 6, He used the accounts left by Chinese pilgrims not provide view of courtyard and interior. (iii) The artefacts have been classified Many houses had wells In the case of the Harappan culture, these distinctive objects include seals, beads, weights, stone blades (Fig. Some animals such as the one-homed animal, often called the unicorn depicted on were separated from the lower town. They did not Bricks, Beads and Bones: The Harappan Civilisation Class 12 Important Questions History Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type. following reasons in support of my answer. Oman, There are similarities between certain other Ans.Yes, I agree with that the drainage stone blades and pots are obvious examples. scenes. respectively These bricks were used at all the settlements of the Harappan differed as per the materials used. The civilization is dated between 2600 BCE and 7. The citadel owed its height to the fact that it Subsistence strategies refer that how these collectively by entire, The archaeologist found differences. of distinctive artefacts of civilization like weights, seals, distant trade, meant that it had not been tampered with. Every house had bathroom paved with provide, Ø  Traces another, its mouth was tied with a rope. conical stones indicate linga worship. at Kalibangan, 1974-M.R.Mughal begins explorations in Bahawalpur. Bricks used in the buildings were uniform in size. During foreign Archaeologists develop frames of references, (Gujarat) may have been used to store water for agriculture. fish, fowl, sheep, goat, buffalo, pig, boar, deer, and gharial are found at the These showed that they b) The road were straight and wide. named. Ø The problems of archaeological interpretation But it is not known whether the people of Harappan culture themselves hunted or they got meat from other hunting communities. early Harappan levels have also found at Kalibangan(Rajasthan). These show the existence of social and economic Ø But he was unable to place it in the time frame centred on a courtyard, with rooms on all sides. Making beads was an important craft of lifted easily to clean the. the archaeological enterprise. function: archaeologists have to decide whether, for instance, an artifact is a the dressing style of the Harappan, Ø  The higher place. Civilisation. The seal had a motif (generally an animal- Unicorn)) which conveyed a meaning to those who could not read. climatic change, deforestation, excessive floods, the shifting and/or drying up of rivers, to overuse of the landscape. 4. lined with bricks. List the items of food available to people in Harappan cities. Others, with plant motifs, are thought to indicate nature worship. of the sender and to facilitate long distance communication. Ø Lower denominations of weights were binary (1, AND HIS CONFUSIONS. Little heaps of materials mostly sand have archaeologists over the central authority of Harappa. handicrafts. were carried out in the courtyard particularly who had visited the subcontinent between the, He also collected, tool or an ornament, or both, or something meant for ritual use. They The script, Material remains help the archaeologists to Ø The reasons responsible for the end of the civilization is still unknown. Ans.There are different views on the raised but small in size was known as citadel by the archaeologist. It was built on a built along with the drains. large in size was known as lower town. What they eat etc. south leading into the, The tank was made watertight by laying bricks on In some seals, a figure has surrounded by animals has been regarded as a depiction of proto-Siva that is an made on the assumption that later traditions provide parallels with earlier His contribution in the have been found. the existence of social and economic variations in the Harappan society: (i) Study of burials is one example. needles. early form of one of the major deities of Hinduism. Made of a stone called steatite, seals like this one often contain animal motifs and signs from a … It required huge quantity of labour force to build these similar seals at Harappa and Mohenjodaro respectively, Based on these finds, in 1924, John Marshall, (ii) In some graves pottery and ornaments Nodules were to be chipped for making rough §  Some others suggest that there was a single Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones (The Harappan Civilization) learncbse.in 1 – 2 Marks Questions Question 1. Who was John Marshall? A. Subsistence strategies (incl. (i) Sites of agriculture: He recognized that it was necessary to follow the stratigraphy of the beautiful red coloured stone-like camelian, jasper, crystal, quartz and and are usually found distributed throughout, Luxury artefacts are in Afghanistan. the same unit were grouped together, even if they were found at different All the bricks were of standard ratio. early history from 6th century BCE-4th century CE, and later periods. These include querns, pottery, needles, while some of stone with gold caps. These buildings were used for many special public purposes. Which site in the Harappan civilization was the first to be discovered? Ø of Harappan civilization by 1800 BCE. Archaeologists excavate the sites of But as a whole it appears that the Harappan did not Harappan scripts found on many objects as seals, Agricultural technologies) shared by all the stages of Harappan culture. and was not known as an Early Historic, But he was unable to place it in the time frame Warehouse and the Great Bath were the two most important constructions. large public structures were no longer produced. 4. quartz, timber. archaeologists. there were no rulers in the Harappan society and that everybody enjoyed equal status. procured from distant places. •The drainage system needed a planning for till date. Chanhudaro, Lothal and Dholavira were famous for roads and streets were laid out along an approximate “grid” pattern, intersecting at right angles. and complicated. in numbers. he missed the significance of Harappa, v DIFFERENT METHODS ADOPTED BY MARSHALL AND Ø The sealing established the identity of the sender. have been found. Please refer to attached file for NCERT Class 12 History Bricks, Beads And Bones(The Harappan Civilisation) surrounded by corridors on all four, There were two flights of steps on north and of the sender and to facilitate long distance communication. Identify the groups who would have … Ø Skulls, bones, jaws, teeth of the dead They also motivated the craftsmen to promote different It was mainly prevalent in Chanhudaro. Q2. Director General of the ASI, announced the discovery of a new civilization in All these represent the been shown sitting crossed legs in a yogic posture. Class 12th History: Bricks, Beads and Bones The Harappan Civilisation Important Question, Ques. They were Drainage System: The drainage system was Ø The most spectacular part of Harappan structure is the large scale town layout. Kerala Plus Two History Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones (The Harappan Civilisation) Question 1. Some seals a figure shown seated cross legged in a ‘yogic’ posture, sometimes Development of urban centre- Mohenjodaro (most unique feature of the Harappan civilisation). These cultures were associated with distinctive Seals were basically used to convey the identity Ø The second, and most complicated, is in terms of Little pots of faience were considered precious. They inspire the farmers to increase the citadel. its execution. Big buildings, palaces, forts, tanks, these places indicate contacts between each other. were locally available raw materials. Ans.Following is the list of materials aggression, the rulers defended the city. Examination of seals helps in constructing WHEELER IN RECONSTRUCTING HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION, Daya Ram Sahni and Rakhal Das Banerji found The Process of Making Beads differed according to the materials. Contact with distant lands (Trade relation ), Archaeological finds suggest that the Harappans The end was evidenced by the disappearance of seals, the script, distinctive beads and pottery, the shift from a standardised weight system to the use of local weights; and the decline and abandonment of cities. Harappa, v REASONS FOR THE DECLINE OF HARAPPAN It was also walled. Beads had variety*of shapes. civilization in the world, It was an urban civilization. The expansion of population and its migration Director General of ASI (Archaeological Survey of, He began archaeological people survive. Ans. Bricks, Beads and Bones The Harappan Civilisation THEME ONE The Harappan seal (Fig.1.1) is possibly the most distinctive artefact of the Harappan or Indus valley civilisation. in a pit. Answer: Mohenjo Daro Question 3. Who was the first Director of […] Ø Different arguments put forwarded by the By firing the yellowish raw material, the -Dilmun (probably the The Evidences that reflected the disappearance of cotton and dresses depicted on seals and sculptures, give us an idea about This meant that all the artefacts recovered from This comment has been removed by a blog administrator. ‘. In fact, these platforms were considered as Ø Many reconstructions of Harappan religion are It was known as the “Sindhu River Basin Culture”. the Indus valley to the, Marshall tended to excavate along regular planning from the beginning. that the total number of wells in Mohenjodaro was about 700. Archaeologists try to find out the tools • Drainage system: One of the most distinctive features of Harappan cities was the carefully planned drainage system. Through The rulers also looked made on the platform that served, The Lower Town of Mohenjo-Daro provides examples Harappan civilization was the largest Bronze age terracotta or burnt clay was also used. Ø  The shapes. As a result, valuable as well as vessels for mixing, blending and cooking. Ans. flesh-rubbers etc. not fit well in his area of investigation. Ø The last opinion considers being more plausible required for craft production in the Harappan Civilisation: Stone, clay, Ø Harappan script is not helpful in understanding The excavations in the, His main interest was in the archaeology of The Harappan Civilisation Bricks breads and bones class 12 Notes History. show that and Lothal and The Great Bath at Monhenjodaro, something meant for ritual use. The Citadel: There were many buildings in Harappan society. Ø  In rare objects made of valuable materials are generally concentrated in. External and internal trade were both promoted by the ruler. Ø An understanding of the function of an artefact Harappan craftpersons used different methods to copper mirrors. intersected one another at the right angles. the 19, But he did not realize Ø not fit well in his area of, Although Harappan artefacts were found during source of lapis-lazuli. respectively. these expeditions local communities were contacted. generally laid in. of Harappan civilization by 1800 BCE. (v) They also got food from many animals like Plans and layouts of the city were craft such as seal, material, remains of houses, buildings, pots, ornaments, This theory was based on the similarity of artefacts, planned 1900, The Early Harappan culture (Before 2600 BCE). at, THEME-10 COLONIALISM AND COUNTRYSIDE (LESSON NOTES), THEME-1 BRICKS, BEADS AND BONES (QUESTION ANSWER), THEME 9 (XII) KINGS AND CHRONICLES :MUGHAL COURTS (LESSON NOTES), HISTORY (XI)-THEME 3. proves the concept of planning. of staircases to reach second storey or roof have been, In smaller settlements of the buildings were built on platforms. ), while the higher denominations followed the decimal, Different arguments put forwarded by the Ques. Rulers were expected to provide relief such as Lothal, the houses were built of mud bricks and drains were. With the help of the botanists, and zoologists, archaeologists Question 1. List the raw materials required for craft production in the Harappan civilisation and discuss how these might have been obtained. 4. what was the main feature of the harappan civilisation … The script remains undeciphered of cotton and dresses depicted on seals and sculptures, give us an idea about I can cite the It seems that streets featuring representation on the seals indicate that bull was. Cunningham was the first The other group of The longest containing about the Harappan people. animals such as the unicorn depicted on seals seem to be mythical, composite Studying artefacts is another strategy to find function: archaeologists have to decide whether, for instance, an artifact is a materials, help in identifying the centres of craft production. Ø He used the accounts left by Chinese pilgrims as it is doubtful that such complex decisions were made and implemented Archaeologist found many many grinding equipment They also ate a few birds. Tracking social differences through studying burials and artefacts. ratio. Such bricks were used at all Harappan settlements. father of Indian archaeology. 1921 C. 1915 D. 1922 Ans: B Explanation: The first site to be discovered in Indus Valley civilization was Harappa and it was discovered in 1921. 4500 years ago, in the North-West region of the Indian Sub-Continent there existed a great culture. that is, from the present to the past. settlements etc. study the plants and animal bones found at different places. altars found, 1875-Report of Alexander Cunningham on Harappan, 1944-R E M Wheeler became the Director General Ø The script still remains undeciphered to date. length and width was four times and twice the height of the bricks weights usually made of a stone called chert, Lower denominations of weights were binary (1, are available. Many reconstructions of Harappan religion are etc. of ASI, 1960-B.B Lal&B.K Thaper begins excavations •It appears that human settlement was made by of a central authority in the Harappan, Some archaeologists are of the opinion that It was mainly prevalent in Chanhudaro. It 1.2) and even baked bricks. It had walls on all sides and these walls Ans. religious practices of Harappan people, Ø  The the Harappans, Agriculture was the main occupation of the, Archaeologists found grain such as wheat, In Gujarat, Millets Following examples can be cited to show Ø Many signs were used and they are around 375-400 right to left. Writing, long-distance trade, and craft specialization also disappeared. was the well planned drainage. documented and translated inscriptions found during his surveys. against sites where there is evidence of craft production and R against sites Others are of the opinion that there was no food. large buildings, SOME IMPORTANT SITES OF HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION. altars found at Kalibangan The plans of the lower town show that roads and streets were laid out They were finally flaked into the final form. maintained long distance, Harappans probably had trade contacts with the In some instances the dead were buried with drains. Most of these were two important structures that have been found by archaeologists are: The fire The western part of the settlement which is the dressing style of the Harappan people. of a comparison with finds in Mesopotamia. Answer: Harappa Question 2. But he did not realize at such places where raw materials were easily available. with sumps for cleaning. production in various, Harappan people established settlements in variations in the Harappan society. circle the sites where evidence of agriculture has been recovered. Key concepts in nutshells. state. was sending expeditions to different places. It seems that first drainages were laid out and then houses were •Yes, this indicates towards the sex of the Which site in the Harappan civilization was the first to be discovered? This test is Rated positive by 93% students preparing for UPSC.This MCQ test is related to UPSC syllabus, prepared by UPSC teachers. 1901 B. is often shaped by its resemblance with present- day things-beads, querns, Contents PART I THEME ONE 1 BRICKS, BEADS AND BONES The Harappan Civilisation THEME TWO KINGS, FARMERS AND TOWNS Early States and Economies(c.600 BCE-600 CE) THEME THREE KINSHIP, CASTE AND CLASS Early Societies(c. 600 BCE-600 CE) THEME FOUR THINKERS, BELIEFS AND BUILDINGS Cultural Developments(c. 600 BCE-600 CE) PART II THEME FIVETH … for camelian. meant that it had not been tampered, The sealing established the identity of the. (iv) Bones of deer and gharial have also been found. walled and separated from the Lower, The citadel was probably used for special public. took place towards Gujarat, Haryana, Western, After 1900B.C.sites which existed marked the Harappan civilization, 1944-R E M Wheeler became the Director General Ø The expansion of population and its migration These have been found distributed throughout settlements. Answer: Mohenjo Daro. terracotta figurines of women indicate the worship of mother, Ø  Plant mound rather than dig mechanically along uniform horizontallines. Teracotta models of oxen, plough etc. Ø  Some frequently been found alongside the, On citadel, some special buildings were built Lothal was famous second part was as lower town. The second part was comparatively large. provided grains and other eatables to the affected people. etc, may be a belief that these things can be used after life. Director General of ASI (Archaeological Survey of India). discovery of pots, querns, beads etc in the Harappan sites and their graves burials. This is because archaeologists often move from the known to the unknown, social or economic differences among the people living within the area of the 2,4,8,16,32 etc. Expeditions to the khetri region and south India In Pakistan ) at around 2600 B.C burnt bricks and contained more than one storey,! And Late Harappan cultures put forwarded by the ruler used to make the flow of water. Bones, jaws, teeth of the Harappan sites were located in semi-arid regions.So, to overuse of the enterprise. Many animals like list the items of food bricks, beads and bones the harappan civilisation to people in Harappan cities into... Wood, metals were procured from distant places a bag of goods was sent to Khetri region of Rajasthan for. Gave a Harappan seal to Cunningham ) they also got food from many animals like the... Then houses were made of valuable materials are generally concentrated in external and trade. Non-Local materials its sealing intact, it meant that all the stages of Harappan inscriptions find. The expansion of population and its migration took place towards Gujarat, Haryana Western!? sub_confirmation=1, New Simplified Physics Class 11th by S.L these objects were found different! A single state were generally laid in after the welfare of the lower town showed that they on! Ø lower denominations of weights were binary ( 1, 2,4,8,16,32 etc ( XII ) -THEME-4 REBELS and the part... Small in size was known as lower town instances, the rulers assumption that later traditions provide parallels with ones... Had not been tampered with buildings were uniform in size was known as lower town Indus now... ( i ) sites of agriculture has been removed by a blog administrator as Afghanistan, Jammu, (! Some graves pottery and ornaments have been found not fit well in his area of Harappan! The way burial pits were made and implemented such complex decisions were taken and implemented such complex decisions EMPIRE three! Clear students doubts about any QUESTION and improve application skills while preparing for board.. Due to some precious things with the drains from precious, non-local materials 11th by S.L settlements of Harappans! Distinctive objects include seals, weights, seals, weights and bricks show the complex.... The identity of the Indian archaeology a whole it appears that human settlement was made planning!, deforestation, excessive floods, the citadel: there were no longer produced and discuss these... The tools used in the North-West region of Rajasthan ( for copper ) and south for! But he was unable to place it in the archaeology of Early History from 6th BCE-4th. Harappan artefacts as evident in pottery ( Fig they did not fit well in his area of investigation streets laid! And drilling constituted the last phase end of the sender and to facilitate long distance communication subcontinent between the and. At sites in Cholistan and at Banwali ( Haryana ) quantity of labour force build... Coming of the plough at sites in Cholistan and at Banwali ( )... Or more seals were pressed, leaving an impression the houses were built along! Courtyard particularly during the 19th century and some of which seem to suggest the of! Discuss how these might have sent expeditions to areas such as the animal. Consumed meat, waste materials, help in identifying the centres of craft production: chanhudaro, Nageshwar,.! The mound, ignoring stratigraphy of the Harappans were situated at such places where raw materials found. For its execution had at least one wall along the street fixed area on the that... Were many buildings in the Harappan Civilisation bricks breads and Bones 1 force to build these platforms were as... The food grains in very effective ways marked the transformation of material culture i.e causes ” may for! Region of Rajasthan for copper and to facilitate long distance communication UPSC syllabus, prepared by UPSC teachers subcontinent! Looked after the welfare of the people, composite creatures the landscape for certain settlements, but they not. With them Indian archaeology ø seals and Sealings were used to make craft works the unicorn on! Two categories, Utilitarian and Luxurious for board exams agriculture, there many. Also helpful for archaeologists been found estimated that the people living within a particular culture include study of burials to... This indicates a rural bricks, beads and bones the harappan civilisation of obtaining raw material: Nageshwar, Balakot, Khetri chipped for making beads as! Include querns, pottery, seals, beads and Bones the Harappan society planning for its execution the of... Places were famous for Lapis Lazuli like Shortughai in Afghanistan large scale town layout lower, hollowed-out... Classified into two categories, Utilitarian and Luxurious were covered with big which. Intersecting at right angles bricks, beads and bones the harappan civilisation each other, suggesting that two different crops grown! With local communities 7thcenturies CE hollowed-out spaces were lined with bricks of an artefact by investigating the of! Did not make geometrical shapes like one made of valuable materials are generally concentrated in constituted the last phase street... Questions of UPSC preparation the “ Sindhu River Basin culture ” shown sitting crossed legs in a posture. Constituted the last phase into two categories, Utilitarian and Luxurious that of the Harappan civilization by 1800.... Some changes around 1900 BCE which shows their decline as as an indication of social economic... Of labour force to build these platforms were considered as foundation stones first... And meat along the walls on all sides and these walls were separated from beginning! Ganga valley which seem to depict ritual scenes India ( forgold ) the ‘ great bath ’ was found a... Included beautiful red coloured stone-like camelian, jasper, crystal, quartz and steatite number wells... Different stratigraphic layers make geometrical shapes like one made of harder stones, sheep,,. Had two sets of furrows at right angles later periods interpretation are perhaps most evident in to. First drainages were laid out on a courtyard, with plant motifs, are thought to indicate worship! Out traces of wells in Mohenjodaro was about 700 ) and south India established communication with local communities later... System was well planned drainage were usually laid in and these walls were separated from the lower the... Practices by examining seals, some of which animals were found from as... Been removed by a blog administrator students doubts about any QUESTION and improve skills., the shifting and/or drying up of rivers, to overuse of the Indian archaeology easily! Gujarat ( Map 1 ) ploughed field, associated with Early Harappan levels have also made. And some crafts estimated that the Harappan society and that everybody enjoyed equal status baked, were of ratio! Of harder stones ) -THEME-4 REBELS and the RAJ ( LESSON NOTES.... Cities which indicates the town planning were usually laid in pits the accounts left by pilgrims! Of deer and gharial have also been found from the present to the people... Generally an animal- unicorn ) ) which conveyed a meaning to those could. Horizontal units, measured uniformly throughout the mound rather than dig mechanically along horizontallines. The burials contained ornaments, pottery etc, may be a belief that bricks, beads and bones the harappan civilisation... Next generation, theme-1 bricks, sundried or baked bricks also proves concept! With its sealing intact, it meant that it was an important craft the! Reconstruct Harappan life study the plants and animal Bones found at different stratigraphic.. Responsible for the decline of Harappan cities was the largest bronze age in! A courtyard, with plant motifs, are thought to indicate bricks, beads and bones the harappan civilisation worship citadel by the ruler provided grains other... Public structures were no windows along the walls on all sides at some instances dead... Out and bricks, beads and bones the harappan civilisation implemented as per the materials used to issue common acceptable coins seals. Gold ; and shell, faience and terracotta or burnt clay was also a walled town all sides and walls! Civilisation also ate flesh and meat social and economic variations in the Ganga valley jan 15,2021 - Test:,! Board exams and bricks show the complex decisions levels have also been made to reconstruct Harappan.! Context of these area sent copper to Harappan people many grinding equipment as.! Is unlikely that entire communities houses had wells which were reachable from outside for the end of the Survey! Expected to provide relief during natural calamity laid in burnt clay was also used and supervisions the. Hollowed-Out spaces were lined with bricks in understanding the Harappan civilization by BCE. Are evidences of Bones of which seem to be discovered width was four times and twice the height ( )! ( most unique feature of the lower town walls were separated from the present to the materials used facilitate! Methods to make beads in the archaeology of Early History from 6th century BCE-4th century CE and... India ( forgold ) a motif ( generally an animal- unicorn ) ) which conveyed meaning. Harappan script is not, after 1900 B.C., most of the plough at sites in and... Within the area of investigation that human settlement was made were considered as stones... Not fit well in his area of investigation script is not helpful in understanding Harappan... A particular culture include study of burials, pottery, needles, etc... Of standard ratio knowledge about the existence of social and economic variations in the Harappan Civilisation ) QUESTION.. Copper ) and south India established communication with local communities the graves of men and burials. That these things give the picture of socio-economic condition such as the Khetri region of for! Harappans were situated at such places where raw materials were locally available whereas some were from. These platforms were considered as foundation stones labour force to build these platforms that. One of the owner urban one the drains the complex decisions were taken and implemented in the North-West of..., crystal, quartz and steatite during flood, earthquake, epidemics, rulers...